|Scientific Name:||Anax ephippiger|
|Species Authority:||(Burmeister, 1839)|
Aeschna ephippigera Burmeister, 1839
Aeshna mediterranea Selys, 1839
Anax marginope Baijal & Agarwal, 1955
Anax senegalensis Rambur, 1842
Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2013. World Odonata List. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: http://www.pugetsound.edu/academics/academic-resources/slater-museum/biodiversity-resources/dragonflies/world-odonata-list2/. (Accessed: 20 November 2013).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species, formerly included in the genus Hemianax, is increasingly included in the genus Anax. As no genetic investigation is available, this remains controversial.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Mitra, A., Babu, R., Brooks, E., Clausnitzer, V., Dow, R.A. & García, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Boudot, J.-P., Samraoui, B. & Schneider, W.|
This is a widespread species with no known major threats, and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Anax ephippiger is an obligate Afro-tropical migrant which expands north with the seasonal monsoon fronts. It may reach far to northern latitudes and has been found dead or dying in Iceland in the past. The winter/spring 2011 migration will remain one of the most famous in Europe as it reached a very large area in France and the UK and was even found in the Faroe Islands. The species is thus known from a huge range [one male was even captured in the French Guiana in South America some year ago (Machet and Duquef 2004)] and reproduce temporarily in the Palearctic (northern Africa, Europe, central and southern Asia ). The new generation leaves its native countries for unknown destinations. All the area in which the species reproduces successfully pertains to its range, although it doesn't occupy it all year round or every year.|
Native:Algeria; Angola (Angola, Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Bangladesh; Benin; Botswana; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Eritrea; Ethiopia; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gambia; Ghana; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chattisgarh, Dadra-Nagar-Haveli, Daman, Darjiling, Delhi, Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkand, Karaikal, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Mahé, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip, Namibia (main part)); Niger; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Madeira - Vagrant, Portugal (mainland)); Qatar; Russian Federation (Kabardino-Balkariya, Krasnodar, Stavropol); Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North-West Province); South Sudan; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; Western Sahara; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Afghanistan; Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Faroe Islands; French Guiana; Germany; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Kazakhstan; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Réunion; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom (Great Britain); Uzbekistan
Present - origin uncertain:Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece (East Aegean Is. - Native, Greece (mainland) - Native, Kriti - Native); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Serbia, Serbia); Slovenia; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||Unknown|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A common species, though no trend may be established. Huge seasonal swarms are known in the Palearctic with origins in tropical Africa and reproduction more northerly. Rate of reproduction in the Paleactic and further migrations is under the dependence of the wet season and the number of flooded temporary pools as well as the temperatures.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species breeds in any kind of temporary or permanent pond, pool and lake bordered with rushes and any other helophyte.|
|Generation Length (years):||0-1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||There is no use or trade information for this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||Anax ephippiger is not threatened at the global scale, although local declines may occur due to habitat destruction and water pollution.|
|Conservation Actions:||This common widespread species does not require immediate conservation attention.|
Al-Houty, W. 1985. Some Odonata from Kuwait. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 121: 62.
Al-Safadi, M.M. 1990. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Yemen Arab Republic. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 11: 18-30.
Boudot, J.P., Kalkman, V.J., Azpilicueta Amorín, M., Bogdanović, T., Cordero Rivera, A., Degabriele, G., Dommanget, J.L., Ferreira, S., Garrigós, B., Jović, M., Kotarac, M., Lopau, W., Marinov, M., Mihoković, N., Riservato, E., Samraoui, B. and Schneider, W. 2009. Atlas of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa. Libellula Supplement 9: 256 pp.
Carfì, S., Romano, V. and Terzani, F. 1995. Some dragonflies from the North of the Republic of Yemen. Bolletino de la Società Entomologica Italiana 126: 195-199.
Dumont H.J. and Al-Safadi M.M. 1991. Additions to the dragonfly fauna of Yemen. Notulae Odonatologicae 3: 114-117.
Dumont, H.J. and Al-Safadi, M.M. 1993. Further additions to the Dragonfly Fauna of the Republic of Yemen (Odonata). Opuscula zoologica fluminensia. 109: 1–8.
Faragalla, A., Moussa, M.E., Badawi, A.I., Ibrahim, M.A. and Dabbour, A.I. 1985. A partial list of beneficial insect species of two localities in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Tropical Pest Managment 31: 139-143.
Feulner, G.R., Reimer, R.W. and Hornby, R.J. 2007. An updated illustrated checklist of dragonflies and damselflies of the UAE. Tribulus 17: 37-62.
Fraser, F.C. 1936. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Odonata. Vol. III. Taylor & Francis, London.
Gillett M.P.T. and Gillett P.D.T. 2002. A winter survey of insects and other terrestrial invertebrates on Marawah Island, Abu Dhabi. Tribulus 12: 12-19.
Grunwell, M. 2010 . Dragonflies and damselflies in Qatar. Journal of the Qatar Natural History Group.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Lambret, P. and Boudot, J.-P. 2009. Nesciothemis farinosa (Förster, 1898) et Orthetrum ransonnetii (Brauer, 1868) nouveaux pour l'Arabie Saoudite et autres observations d'Odonates sur les reliefs côtiers de la Mer Rouge. Martinia, 25: 153-155.
Machet P. and Duquef, M. 2004. Un visiteur inattendu, et de taille !... Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839) capturé à la Guyane française. Martinia 20: 121-124.
McLachlan, R. 1903. The Dragon-flies of Sokotra. In: Forbes H.O. (ed.), The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri, pp. 398-403. Liverpool Museum, Liverpool.
Mitra, T.R. 2002. Geographical distribution of Odonata (Insecta) of Eastern India. Memoirs of Zoological Survey of India 19(9): 1-208.
Reimer R.W. 2011. Tramea basilaris (Beauvais, 1817) new to UAE. AGRION, Newsletter of the Worldwide Dragonfly Association 15: 22-23.
Reimer, R.W., Feulner, G.R. and Hornby, R.J., 2009. Errata and addenda: updated illustrated checklist of dragonflies of the UAE – including a third species of Ischnura damselfly. Tribulus 18: 28-39.
Riservato, E. et al. 2010. A contribution to the knowledge of the odonatofauna of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen). Zoology in the Middle East 50: 101-106.
Schneider, W. 1988. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Wahiba Sands and adjacent Areas, Eastern Oman. Journal of Oman Studies Special Report 3: 377–388.
Schneider W. and Dumont H.J. 1997. The Dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) of Oman. An updated and annotated checklist. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 16: 89-110.
Schneider, W. and Dumont, H.J. 1998. Checklist of the Dragonflies and Damselflies of Soqotra Island (Insecta: Odonata). First International Scientific Symposium on Socotra Island: present and future 1: 211-231. Aden, 1996.
Schneider W. and Krupp F. 1993. Dragonfly records from Saudi Arabia, with an annotated checklist of the species from the Arabian Peninsula (Insecta: Odonata). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 13: 63–78.
Shalaby, F. 1961. A preliminary survey of the insect fauna of Saudi Arabia. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte 45: 211-228.
UEA natur forum. 2010-2012. Available at: http://www.uaebirding.com/forum/.
Van der Weide, M.J.T. and Kalkman, V.J. 2008. Some new records of dragonflies from Oman. Agrion, Newsletter of the Worldwide Dragonfly Association 12 : 52-54.
Waterston, A.R. 1980. Insects of Saudi Arabia. Odonata. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 2: 57–70.
Waterston, A.R. 1980. The Dragonflies (Odonata) of Dhofar. Journal of Oman studies. Special Report 2: 149-151.
Waterston, A.R. 1984. Insects of Southern Arabia. Odonata from the Yemens and Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 6: 451-472.
Waterston, A.R. and Pittaway, A.R. 1991 (1989). The Odonata or Dragonflies of Oman and neighbouring territories. Journal of Oman Studies 10: 131-168.
|Citation:||Subramanian, K. 2013. Anax ephippiger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T59811A17522965. . Downloaded on 02 May 2016.|