Anax ephippiger 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Aeshnidae

Scientific Name: Anax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Vagrant Emperor
French Anax Porte-Selle
Aeschna ephippigera Burmeister, 1839
Aeshna mediterranea Selys, 1839
Anax marginope Baijal & Agarwal, 1955
Anax senegalensis Rambur, 1842
Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
Taxonomic Source(s): Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2013. World Odonata List. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
Taxonomic Notes: This species, formerly included in the genus Hemianax, is increasingly included in the genus Anax. As no genetic investigation is available, this remains controversial.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-04
Assessor(s): Subramanian, K.A.
Reviewer(s): Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Kipping, J., Samways, M.J., Simaika, J. & Boudot, J.-P.
Contributor(s): Boudot, J.-P., Samraoui, B. & Schneider, W.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Alomari, K.
This is a widespread species with no known major threats, and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Anax ephippiger is an obligate Afro-tropical migrant which expands north with the seasonal monsoon fronts. It may reach far to northern latitudes and has been found dead or dying in Iceland in the past. The winter/spring 2011 migration will remain one of the most famous in Europe as it reached a very large area in France and the UK and was even found in the Faroe Islands. This species is thus known from a huge range [one male was even captured in the French Guiana in South America some year ago (Machet and Duquef 2004)] and reproduce temporarily in the Palearctic (northern Africa, Europe, central and southern Asia ). The new generation leaves its native countries for unknown destinations. All the areas in which this species reproduces successfully pertains to its range, although it does not occupy them all year round or every year.
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Andorra; Angola (Angola); Armenia; Bangladesh; Benin; Botswana; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Ethiopia; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Guinea-Bissau; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chattisgarh, Dadra-Nagar-Haveli, Daman, Darjiling, Delhi, Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkand, Karaikal, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Mahé, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip, Namibia (main part)); Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Madeira - Vagrant, Portugal (mainland)); Qatar; Russian Federation (European Russia, Kabardino-Balkariya, Krasnodar, Stavropol); Rwanda; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Slovakia; Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North-West Province); South Sudan; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; Western Sahara; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
Afghanistan; Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Faroe Islands; French Guiana; Germany; Guernsey; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Isle of Man; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Réunion; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom (Great Britain); Uzbekistan
Present - origin uncertain:
Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):YesEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:Unknown
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a common species, though no population trend has been established. Huge seasonal swarms are known in the Palearctic with origins in tropical Africa and reproduction more northerly. The rate of reproduction in the Paleactic and further migrations is under the dependence of the wet season and the number of flooded temporary pools, as well as the temperature.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species breeds in any kind of temporary or permanent pond, pool and lake bordered with rushes and any other helophyte.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Generation Length (years):0-1
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no use or trade information for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has no threats at the global scale, although local declines may occur due to habitat destruction and water pollution.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This common, widespread species does not require immediate conservation attention. It occurs in multiple protected areas across its wide range.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

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Machet P. and Duquef, M. 2004. Un visiteur inattendu, et de taille !... Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839) capturé à la Guyane française. Martinia 20: 121-124.

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Citation: Subramanian, K.A. 2016. Anax ephippiger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T59811A72310087. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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