|Scientific Name:||Cordulegaster helladica|
|Species Authority:||Lohmann, 1993|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2c+3c; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Samraoui, B., Schneider, W. (Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, Oct. 2007) & Pollock, C.M. (IUCN Red List Unit)|
Cordulegaster helladica is endemic to southern Greece (Boudot 2001). The nominal subspecies reproduces in 49 streams (separate locations overall, but some are now extinct) and remains fairly flourishing in the Peloponnesus and Euboea (Evvoia) island, although some populations seem to have been reduced or have even disappeared from some localities. Cordulegaster helladica buchholzi is known only from seven streams in the Cyclades Islands and is known over about 820 km² only. Some of the old known localities have been recently found to be dry and deserted. Cordulegaster helladica kastalia is known to reproduce only in a single and very touristy place over about 0.2 km² (the preserved sacred spring of Delphi and related brook). The differentiation of several subspecies or local forms reflect the isolation of the various groups of populations and the ancient lack or weakness of gene interchange between them, particularly between those of the Cyclades islands and those of the continent, but also between some different continental ones.
There are likely to be problems of erosion in the Peloponnesus part of its range. Recent drought conditions have also resulted in some sites being lost and there is increased risk of effective forest fires in the area. In the past 10 years it is highly likely that the population has declined by at least 50% based on observed reduction of sites and continued habitat degradation. The future threat of increasing drought through changing climatic conditions is expected to result in a future decline of 50%. The area of occupancy is also likely to be less than 500 km². With the population severely fragmented and declining range, populations and habitat quality, the species is assessed as Endangered
|Range Description:||Cordulegaster helladica is endemic to southernmost parts of northern Greece, Peloponnesus Peninsula and Cyclades islands. Three weakly differentiated subspecies have been described, namely Cordulegaster helladica helladica from the Peloponnesus to Euboea island (an additional locality at Mount Olympus is doubtful), C. h. buccholzi from Naxos, Tinos and Andros islands, and C. h. kastalia from the Delphi archeological site. The area of occupancy is thought to be less than 500 km2.|
Native:Greece (Greece (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A number of populations are still flourishing but some of the Cycades islands populations seem to now be extinct due to springs drying up. The population is severely fragmented.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Mountain brooks and spring areas.|
|Major Threat(s):||Water harnessing for human use as well as forest fires. Cleaning-out of the sacred Kastalian spring at Delphi, the single known locality of the most yellow form. Over collection by Odonatologists in Delphi and the Cycades.|
|Conservation Actions:||Forest preservation and control of water use are needed. At Delphi, a good understanding of the water pathway in karst-type mountain is required. The area of the Kastalian spring and brook should be efficiently closed. Any cleaning-out of the spring/brook should be discarded.|
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Lohmann, H. 1993. Revision der Cordulegastridae. Beschreibung neuer Arten in den Gattungen Cordulegaster, Anotogaster, Neallogaster und Sonjagaster. Odonatologica 22(3): 273-294.
Lopau, W. 1999. Bisher unveröffentlichte Libellenbeobachtungen aus Griechenland. In: W. Lopau (ed.), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands I, pp. 91-131. Gesellschaft deutschsparchiger Odonatologen (GdO), Mönchengladbach.
Lopau, W. 1999. Die Libellenfauna der Insel Évia (Euböa), Griechenland. In: W. Lopau (ed.), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands I, pp. 67-76. Gesellschaft deutschsparchiger Odonatologen (GdO), Mönchengladbach.
Lopau, W. 2000. Bisher unveröffentlichte Libellenbeobachtungen aus Griechenland II (Odonata). In: W. Lopau (ed.), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands II, pp. 81-116. Gesellschaft deutschsparchiger Odonatologen (GdO), Mönchengladbach.
Lopau, W. 2005. Bisher unveröffenlichte Libellenbeobachtungen aus Griechenland III (Odonata). In: W. Lopau (ed.), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands III, pp. 49-84. Gesellschaft deutschsparchiger Odonatologen (GdO), Mönchengladbach.
Lopau, W. and Wendler, A. 1995. Arbeitsatlas zur Verbreitung der Libellen in Griechenland und den umliegenden Gebieten. Rasterkarten nach den in der Literatur vorhandenen Nachweisen sowie unveröffentlichten Beobachtungen. In: W. Lopau (ed.), Naturkundliche Reiseberichte. Gnarrenburg.
van Pelt, G.J. 1999. On dragonflies from Greece in the RMNH collection, Leiden, The Netherlands. In: W. Lopau (ed.), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands I, pp. 77-90. Gesellschaft deutschsparchiger Odonatologen (GdO), Mönchengladbach.
|Citation:||Boudot, J.-P. 2010. Cordulegaster helladica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 February 2015.|