Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Tylototriton shanjing
Species Authority: Nussbaum, Brodie & Yang, 1995
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: There is a nomenclatural problem with this species, and the name might change (A. Ohler pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Annemarie Ohler, Lu Shunqing, Yang Datong
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Near Threatened because it is in significant decline (but at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because it is being over-harvested and is suffering from habitat loss and degradation, making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from central, western and southern Yunnan, China, from 1,000-2,500m asl. The boundary between this species and Tylototriton verrucosus is not clear, and it is possible that T. shanjing occurs in Myanmar.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is very common in central, western and southern Yunnan, but is less common in the northern part of its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits hill forests and secondary forest, where it breeds by larval development in pools, ponds and ditches, including some artificial waterbodies.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is over-collecting for traditional medicine. Small numbers are also exported for the international pet trade, and its habitats are also being threatened by infrastructure development for human settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of this species overlaps with a number of protected areas in the region, and it is bred in captivity in Europe and North America.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.

Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, E.D. and Datong, Y. 1995. A taxonomic review of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica: 257-268.

The Comprehensive Scientific Expedition to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Hengduan Mountains. Science Press, Beijing.

Zhao, E.-M. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals - Amphibia. Science Press, Beijing.

Citation: Annemarie Ohler, Lu Shunqing, Yang Datong. 2004. Tylototriton shanjing. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59485A11934078. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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