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Pleurodeles waltl 

Scope: Global
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Pleurodeles waltl
Species Authority: Michahelles, 1830
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Sharp-ribbed Salamander, Spanish Ribbed Newt
French Pleurodèles De Waltl, Triton D’espagne, Triton De Waltl
Spanish Gallipato

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Pedro Beja, Jaime Bosch, Miguel Tejedo, Paul Edgar, David Donaire-Barroso, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Tahar Slimani , El Hassan El Mouden, Philippe Geniez, Tahar Slimani
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, and the effects of invasive species, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in central and southern Iberia, and in the coastal plain of northern Morocco. It is essentially a lowland species becoming rare above 900m asl, although it might be found at 1,565m asl in the Sierra de Loja, Granada, Spain.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Morocco; Portugal; Spain
Introduced:
Gibraltar
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1565
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is not abundant over most of its distribution, with populations being more scattered and fragmented in the east and north of the Iberian Peninsula. Some population declines in this species have been observed, especially in eastern Spain. It appears to be in decline in Morocco (although it is common in the north), and the southernmost populations in Morocco might be extinct (T. Slimani and El Hassan El Mouden pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a highly aquatic species of Mediterranean-type habitats including scrub, open woodland and cultivated land. It is generally found in ponds, dayas, wadis, lakes, ditches and slow-moving streams (often temporary in nature) with plenty of vegetation cover. The adults are mostly found under stones or in mud in their aquatic habitats, or sheltering under cover on land if the wetland dries up. It may be present in slightly modified aquatic and terrestrial habitats. The female deposits around 800-1,500 eggs on plants and stones in ponds.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is generally threatened through loss of aquatic habitats through drainage, agrochemical pollution, the impacts of livestock (in North African dayas), eutrophication, domestic and industrial contamination, and infrastructure development. It has largely disappeared from coastal areas in Iberia and Morocco close to concentrations of tourism and highly populated areas (such as Madrid). Introduced fish and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) are known to prey on the eggs and larvae of this species, and are implicated in its decline. Mortality on roads has been reported to be a serious threat to some populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in a number of protected areas in Iberia, but there is a need to monitor vulnerable populations in northern and eastern Spain and Portugal. It is listed on Appendix III of the Berne Convention and is protected by national legislation in Spain, where captive breeding of the species and habitat restoration projects are in place in some regions.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Procambarus clarkii ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

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Bermejo García, A. 2006. Nuevos datos de agresiones de Procambarus clarkii sobre Pleurodeles waltl. Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp., 17 (2): 82-85..

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Citation: Pedro Beja, Jaime Bosch, Miguel Tejedo, Paul Edgar, David Donaire-Barroso, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Tahar Slimani , El Hassan El Mouden, Philippe Geniez, Tahar Slimani. 2009. Pleurodeles waltl. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T59463A11926338. . Downloaded on 30 July 2016.
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