Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Notophthalmus viridescens
Species Authority: (Rafinesque, 1820)
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Newt
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-03-03
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Garcia Moreno, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Garcia Moreno, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found throughout the eastern USA and adjacent southern Canada; west to Minnesota, eastern Kansas, and eastern Texas (Petranka 1998). There are thousands of occurrences.
Countries occurrence:
Canada; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is widespread and abundant. It might have increased as creation of farm ponds augmented available habitat (Petranka 1998). Could be increasing with increasing beaver populations (Petranka 1998).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Adults and larvae inhabit ponds, swamps, and quiet stream pools. Animals may burrow into mud if pond dries. Efts and sometimes adults (i.e. over wintering ones) inhabit wooded areas (terrestrial eft stage lasts 2-7 years). The adults are generally permanently aquatic in northeastern USA, but may leave pond in summer or fall in some areas (e.g. montane Virginia). Eggs are attached to submerged vegetation.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of the species being utilized

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Roads negatively impact salamander abundance in roadside habitat and might serve as partial barriers to movement (deMaynadier and Hunter 2000). Introduced bluegill sunfish might cause declines in larval abundance (Smith et al. 1999). However, the species is not majorly threatened overall.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None needed. It occurs in many protected areas. Monitoring and research on population trends are lacking.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Marginal season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Marginal season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Bruckskotten, M., Looso, M., Reinhardt, R., Braun, T., Borchardt, T. 2012. Newt-omics: a comprehensive repository for omics data from the newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Nucleic Acids Research 40(D1): D895-D900.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.

DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.

deMaynadier, P.G. and Hunter, Jr., M.L. 2000. Road effects on amphibian movements in a forested landscape. Natural Areas Journal: 56-65.

Forester, D.C. and Lykens, D.V. 1991. Age structure in a population of red-spotted newts from the Allegheny Plateau of Maryland. Journal of Herpetology: 373-376.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Harris, R.N., Alford, R.A. and Wilbur, H.M. 1988. Density and phenology of Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis in a natural pond. Herpetologica: 234-242.

Healy, W.R. 1975. Terrestial activity and home range of efts of Notophthalmus viridescens. American Midland Naturalist: 131-138.

Hurlbert, S.H. 1970. The post-larval migration of the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque). Copeia: 515-528.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mecham, J.S. 1967. Notophthalmus viridescens. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-4.

Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Raffaëlli, J. 2007. Les Urodèles du monde. Penclen Édition, Condé-sur-Noireau, France.

Reilly, S.M. 1990. Biochemical systematics and evolution of the eastern North American newts, genus Notophthalmus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica: 51-59.

Roe, A. W., Grayson, K. L. 2008. Terrestrial movements and habitat use of juvenile emigrating adult eastern red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Herpetology 42(1): 22-30.

Schlegel, P. A. 2007. Spontaneous preferences for magnetic compass direction in the American red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae, Urodela). Journal of Ethology 25(2): 177-184.

Sever, D. M. 2006. The "False Breeding Season" of the Eastern Newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 41(8): 149-153.

Smith, G.R., Rettig, J.E., Mittelbach, G.G., Valiulis, J.L. and Schaack, S.R. 1999. The effects of fish on assemblages of amphibians in ponds: a field experiment. Freshwater Biology: 829-837.

Smith, K. G. 2006. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species. Oecologia 148(2): 342-349.

Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Notophthalmus viridescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59453A56448316. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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