|Scientific Name:||Notophthalmus viridescens|
|Species Authority:||(Rafinesque, 1820)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be found throughout the eastern USA and adjacent southern Canada; west to Minnesota, eastern Kansas, and eastern Texas (Petranka 1998). There are thousands of occurrences.|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and abundant. It might have increased as creation of farm ponds augmented available habitat (Petranka 1998). Could be increasing with increasing beaver populations (Petranka 1998).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Adults and larvae inhabit ponds, swamps, and quiet stream pools. Animals may burrow into mud if pond dries. Efts and sometimes adults (i.e., over wintering ones) inhabit wooded areas (terrestrial eft stage lasts 2-7 years). The adults are generally permanently aquatic in northeastern USA, but may leave pond in summer or fall in some areas (e.g., montane Virginia). Eggs are attached to submerged vegetation.|
|Major Threat(s):||Roads negatively impact salamander abundance in roadside habitat and might serve as partial barriers to movement (deMaynadier and Hunter 2000). Introduced bluegill sunfish might cause declines in larval abundance (Smith et al. 1999). However, the species is unthreatened overall.|
|Conservation Actions:||None needed. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.
DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.
deMaynadier, P.G. and Hunter, Jr., M.L. 2000. Road effects on amphibian movements in a forested landscape. Natural Areas Journal: 56-65.
Forester, D.C. and Lykens, D.V. 1991. Age structure in a population of red-spotted newts from the Allegheny Plateau of Maryland. Journal of Herpetology: 373-376.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Harris, R.N., Alford, R.A. and Wilbur, H.M. 1988. Density and phenology of Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis in a natural pond. Herpetologica: 234-242.
Healy, W.R. 1975. Terrestial activity and home range of efts of Notophthalmus viridescens. American Midland Naturalist: 131-138.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1970. The post-larval migration of the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque). Copeia: 515-528.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Mecham, J.S. 1967. Notophthalmus viridescens. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-4.
Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Reilly, S.M. 1990. Biochemical systematics and evolution of the eastern North American newts, genus Notophthalmus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica: 51-59.
Smith, G.R., Rettig, J.E., Mittelbach, G.G., Valiulis, J.L. and Schaack, S.R. 1999. The effects of fish on assemblages of amphibians in ponds: a field experiment. Freshwater Biology: 829-837.
Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Notophthalmus viridescens. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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