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Pseudotriton ruber 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini de Manoncourt & Latreille, 1801)
Common Name(s):
English Red Salamander
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-02-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Garcia Moreno, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Garcia Moreno, J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species can be found in the eastern United States from southern New York to southern Indiana and south to the Gulf Coast, and from sea level up to 1,500 m asl (Raffaëlli 2007), it is absent from most of Atlantic coastal plain south of Virginia and from peninsular Florida (Petranka 1998).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is widespread and considered to be secure.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It can be found in cold, clear, rocky streams and springs in wooded or open areas. Adults occur in or near water in leaf-litter and under rocks, and in crevices and burrows near water. Adults sometimes disperse into woods. Eggs are attached to underside of rocks in water. Larvae occur in still pools and most undergo metamorphosis before 17 months.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation, acid drainage from coalmines, and stream siltation and pollution undoubtedly has resulted in the loss of many subpopulations (Petranka 1998). However, the species is overall considered to be secure on a global scale.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Bruce, R.C. 1969. Fecundity in primitive plethodontid salamanders. Evolution: 50-54.

Bruce, R.C. 1974. Larval development of the salamander Pseudotriton montanus diastictus and P. ruber. American Midland Naturalist: 173-190.

Bruce, R.C. 1978. Reproductive biology of the salamander Pseudotriton ruber in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Copeia: 417-423.

Cecala, K. K., Price, S. J., Dorcas, M. E. 2007. Diet of larval red salamanders (Pseudotriton ruber) examined using a nonlethal technique. Journal of Herpetology 41(4): 741-745.

Cecala, K. K., Price, S. J., Dorcas, M. E. 2009. Evaluating existing movement hypotheses in linear systems using larval stream salamanders. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87(4): 292-298.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Grant, E. H. C., Green, L. E., Lowe, W. H. 2009. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks. Freshwater Biology 54: 1370-1378.

Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Hulse, A.C., McCoy, C.J. and Censky, E. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Comstock Publishing Associates and Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Martof, B.S. 1975. Pseudotriton ruber. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-3.

Minton Jr, S.A. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana, revised second edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.

Nichols, J.D., Balley, L. L., O'Connell Jr., A. D., Talancy, N. W., Grant, E. H. C., Gilbert, A. T., Annand, E. M., Husband, T. P. Hines, J. E. 2008. Multi-scale occupancy estimation and modelling using multiple detection methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 1321-1329.

Pfingsten, R.A. and Downs, F.L. 1989. Salamanders of Ohio. Bulletin of Ohio Biological Survey: 1-315.

Redmond, W.H. and Scott, A.F. 1996. Atlas of Amphibians in Tennessee (Miscellaneous Publication Number 12). The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University, Miscellaneous Publication Number 12, Clarksville, TN, USA.

Semlitsch, R.D. 1983. Growth and metatmorphosis of larvalred salamanders (Pseudotriton ruber) on the coastal plain of South Carolina. Herpetologica: 48-52.

Tobey, F.J. 1985. Virginia's amphibians and reptiles: a distributional survey. Virginia Herpetological Survey, Virginia.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Pseudotriton ruber. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59404A56253351. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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