|Scientific Name:||Plethodon vehiculum|
|Species Authority:||(Cooper, 1860)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in Western North America from southwestern British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, south through western Washington to southwestern Oregon (Petranka 1998). It occurs from sea level to about 1,250m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is one of the most commonly encountered terrestrial salamanders throughout its range (Nussbaum et al. 1983).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It can be found in humid coniferous forests; damp talus slopes and shaded ravines. Found under rocks, logs, leaf-litter, and other forest debris. On Vancouver Island, small individuals were found under small rocks and away from discrete cover objects in leaf-litter and under moss more frequently than were larger individuals (Ovaska and Gregory 1989). Lays eggs on land in moist retreats, where they develop directly without a larval stage.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species. Logging is not a major threat because this species maintains thriving populations in young forests.|
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are needed for this species. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Leonard, W.P., Brown, H.A., Jones, L.L.C., McAllister, K.R. and Storm, R.M. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Mahoney, M.J. 2001. Molecular systematics of Plethodon and Aneides (Caudata: Plethodontidae): phylogenetic analysis of an old and rapid radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 174-188.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Ovaska, K. 1988. Spacing and movements of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Herpetologica: 377-386.
Ovaska, K. and Gregory, P.T. 1989. Population structure, growth, and reproduction in a Vancouver Island population of the salamander Plethodon vehiculum. Herpetologica: 133-143.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Storm, R.M. and Brodie, E.D. Jr. 1970. Plethodon vehiculum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Plethodon vehiculum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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