|Scientific Name:||Plethodon vehiculum|
|Species Authority:||(Cooper, 1860)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Garcia Moreno, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Garcia Moreno, J.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in Western North America from southwestern British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, south through western Washington to southwestern Oregon (Petranka 1998). It occurs from sea level to about 1,250 m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is one of the most commonly encountered terrestrial salamanders throughout its range (Nussbaum et al. 1983).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It can be found in humid coniferous forests; damp talus slopes and shaded ravines. It is often encountered under rocks, logs, leaf-litter, and other forest debris. On Vancouver Island, small individuals were found under small rocks and away from discrete cover objects in leaf-litter and under moss more frequently than were larger individuals (Ovaska and Gregory 1989). It lays eggs on land in moist retreats, where they develop directly without a larval stage.|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major known threats to this species. Logging is not considered to be a major threat because this species maintains thriving populations in young forests.|
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are needed for this species. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Kluber, M. R., Olson, D. H., Puettmann, K. J. 2008. Amphibian distributions in riparian and upslope areas and their habitat associations on managed forest landscapes in the Oregon Coast Range. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 529-535.
Leonard, W.P., Brown, H.A., Jones, L.L.C., McAllister, K.R. and Storm, R.M. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Mahoney, M.J. 2001. Molecular systematics of Plethodon and Aneides (Caudata: Plethodontidae): phylogenetic analysis of an old and rapid radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 174-188.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Ovaska, K. 1988. Spacing and movements of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Herpetologica: 377-386.
Ovaska, K. and Gregory, P.T. 1989. Population structure, growth, and reproduction in a Vancouver Island population of the salamander Plethodon vehiculum. Herpetologica: 133-143.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Rundio, D. E., Olson, D. H. 2007. Influence of headwater site conditions and riparian buffers on terrestrial salamander response to forest thinning. Forest Science 53(2): 320-330.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Storm, R.M. and Brodie, E.D. Jr. 1970. Plethodon vehiculum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Plethodon vehiculum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.|
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