|Scientific Name:||Bolitoglossa compacta|
|Species Authority:||Wake, Brame & Duellman, 1973|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe|
|Contributor(s):||Wake, D., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Chaves, G., Savage, J. & Ibáñez, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Young, B.E. & Nowakowski , J.|
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is estimated at 521 km2, it is known from three locations (G. Chaves and A. García pers. comm. 2013), and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat within Parque Internacional La Amistad (A. Hertz pers. comm. 2013).
|Range Description:||This species is found in the humid lower montane areas on or near the Costa Rica-Panama border, on the Pacific versant of Costa Rica at 1,650-1,980 m asl, and the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of western Panama at 1,810-2,780 m asl. The species is known to occur at Cerro Pando, Mount Totumas, and Volcán Barú (A. Hertz, pers. comm. 2013), which are considered three separate threat-defined locations. Its range, taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), is estimated at 521 km2.
Native:Costa Rica; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This is a naturally rare species, although it was found to be relatively common in the Talamanca region of Costa Rica. Currently, two disjunct subpopulations are known to occur in the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica and Panama (G. Chaves and A. García, pers. comm. 2013). The species has been recorded at Cerro Pando, Mount Totumas, and Volcán Barú (Hertz et al. 2009, A. Hertz pers. comm. 2013). A deforested valley occurs between Volcán Barú and the Cerro Pando and Mount Totumas sites.
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits humid montane forest, living on the ground and in low vegetation; there is little information on its adaptability to disturbed habitats. This species breeds by direct development (Hanken 1979).|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat is habitat loss caused by expanding smallholder farming and livestock activities and logging. There is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat within Parque Internacional La Amistad (A. Hertz, pers. comm. 2013).|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in Parque Internacional La Amistad on the border of Costa Rica and Panama and within Parque Nacional Volcán Barú in western Panama. Research is needed on population trends, current threats, and life history.|
García-París, M., Good, D.A., Parra-Olea, G. and Wake, D.B. 2000. Biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA: 1640-1647.
Hanken, J. 1979. Egg development time and clutch size in two neotropical salamanders. Copeia 1979: 741-744.
Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Lips, K.R. 1993. Bolitoglossa compacta. Herpetological Review: 107.
Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Wake, D.B., Brame, A.H. and Duellman, W.E. 1973. New species of salamanders, genus Bolitoglossa, from Panama. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science: 1-19.
Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe 2014. Bolitoglossa compacta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.|
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