|Scientific Name:||Aneides lugubris|
|Species Authority:||(Hallowell, 1849)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Geoffrey Hammerson|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the Coast Ranges of California from Humboldt County, USA, to northwest Baja California Norte, Mexico. It also occurs in the central Sierra Nevada foothills; South Farallon, Santa Catalina, and Isla Coronado Norte (Behler and King 1979). It lives from sea level to about 1,500m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It appears to have declined in some areas since the 1970s (D. B. Wake, cited by Petranka 1998), but remains common in many places.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits coastal live-oak woodlands; yellow pine and black oak forests in the foothills. It is found on ground under leaf-litter, rocks, logs, etc.; it also climbs trees. It retreats to tree cavities, rodent burrows, caves, and mine shafts in summer. Lays eggs in hollow trees or logs and in cavities in the earth (Behler and King 1979). In Baja California it lives in sycamore woodland. It breeds by direct development, and is not dependent upon water.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is a major threat is loss of large oaks and sycamores used for nesting and estivation.|
|Conservation Actions:||The most important conservation need is protection of oak and sycamore woodland habitat and especially large old oak and sycamore trees. It occurs in several protected areas. This species is protected by Mexican law under the "Special Protection" category (Pr).|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Lynch, J.F. and Wake, D.B. 1974. Aneides lugubris. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.
Mahoney, M.J. 2001. Molecular systematics of Plethodon and Aneides (Caudata: Plethodontidae): phylogenetic analysis of an old and rapid radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: 174-188.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Stebbins, R.C. 1954. Amphibians and Reptiles of Western North America. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
|Citation:||Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Aneides lugubris. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 April 2014.|