|Scientific Name:||Ambystoma taylori|
|Species Authority:||Brandon, Maruska & Rumph, 1982|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Based on both allozymes and mtDNA, this is a very distinctive salamander (H.B. Shaffer pers. comm.). The Ambystoma salamanders occurring in other natural lakes around Alchichica are not closely related to this species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Wake, D., Parra-Olea, G., Shaffer, H.B., Arias Caballero, P., Burkhardt, T. & Aguilar, X.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Sharp, D., Hobin, L. & Arias Caballero, P.|
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence is 16 km2, all individuals are in a single threat-defined location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Laguna Alchichica.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Laguna Alchichica, a saline crater lake in eastern Puebla, eastern-central Mexico and found at 2,290 m asl. It is known from a single threat-defined location and has an extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of 16 km2.|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||15.81|
|Number of Locations:||1|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||2290|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a rare species, having formerly been quite common. In June 2005 the species was found to be numerous among the deeper edges of the Tufa outcrops at the lake's edge (T. Burkhardt pers. comm. 2006).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It usually does not metamorphose, and most individuals live permanently in water. It breeds in the lake, and is most often found in very deep water, often more than 30 m below the surface. The population is suspected to be decreasing as a result of habitat loss.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||The most serious threat is water extraction and diversion. In 2004 this was recorded as having caused the water level to decrease over the previous two decades, leading to the lake becoming more saline. This is an ongoing problem for Laguna Alchichica with extracted water being used to irrigate agricultural land and provide drinking water to the expanding human population (P.A. Caballero pers. comm. August 2015); and continued transformation and pollution of the lake will result in the disappearance of this species. Attempts to introduce fish in the lake have failed because it is too saline.|
It does not occur in any protected area, and the protection of the Laguna Alchichica is an urgent priority. This species is protected under the category Pr (Special protection) by the Government of Mexico.
In addition, consideration should be given to establishing a captive-breeding programme.
Population monitoring is necessary to monitor the impact of known, ongoing threats.
Brandon, R.A., Maruska, E.J. and Rumph, W.T. 1982. A new species of neotenic Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata) endemic to Laguna Alchichica, Puebla, Mexico. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences: 112-125.
Camarillo-R, J.L. 1998. Observaciones preliminares sobre los anfibios y reptiles de los lagos crater de Puebla-Veracruz. Anales del Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Serie Zoologia: 125-127.
Dyer, W.G. 1984. Hedruris siredonis from Ambystoma taylori endemic to Laguna Alchichica Puebla, Mexico. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science: 59-60.
Highton, R. 2000. Detecting cryptic species using allozyme data. In: Bruce, R.C., Jaeger, R.G. and Houck, L.D. (eds), The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders, pp. 215-241. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Santinelli-Ramos, M.A. 1995. Ambystoma taylori (Taylor's salamander). Record size. Herpetological Review: 196.
Shaffer, H.B. 1984. Evolution in a paedomorphic lineage. I. An electrophoretic analysis of the Mexican ambystomatid salamanders. Evolution: 1194-1206.
Shaffer, H.B. 1984. Evolution in a paedomorphic lineage. II. Allometry and form in the Mexican ambystomatid salamanders. Evolution: 1207-1218.
Shaffer, H.B. and Lauder, G.V. 1985. Patterns of variation in aquatic ambystomatid salamanders: kinematics of the feeding mechanism. Evolution: 83-92.
Shaffer, H.B. and McKnight, M.L. 1996. The polytypic species revisited: genetic differentiation and molecular phylogenetics of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) (Amphibia: Caudata) complex. Evolution: 417-433.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Ambystoma taylori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59070A53974679. . Downloaded on 02 May 2016.|
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