|Scientific Name:||Ambystoma gracile|
|Species Authority:||(Baird, 1857)|
Siredon gracilis Baird, 1857
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be found from the Pacific coast of North America from extreme southeastern Alaska south through western Canada and northwestern U.S. to the Gualala River, California. It occurs from sea level to about 3,110m asl (Stebbins 1985).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000 and possibly exceeds 100,000. Its' populations appear to be stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in open grassland, woodland, and forest near breeding ponds. Non-paedomorphic adults are underground most of the year. During the breeding season, they often are found under rocks and logs. Larvae have been reported to be restricted to shallow areas in lakes with fishes. Adult and larval northwestern salamanders are distasteful to fishes and bullfrogs, allowing coexistence (Leonard et al. 1993). Eggs are laid in ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams; usually attached to vegetation in shallows (Blaustein et al. 1995) or deeper water (e.g., 0.5-1.0m below water surface) (Nussbaum et al. 1983).|
|Major Threat(s):||A major threat is probably the removal of forest surrounding ponds and small lakes. Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes increased mortality of eggs (compared to UV-B-shielded eggs) (Blaustein et al. 1995), but natural oviposition sites often might not be subject to damaging levels of UV. Experimental data indicate that larvae are negatively impacted by the presence of trout (Tyler et al. 1998), yet salamanders and trout coexist in some areas (Leonard et al. 1993).|
|Conservation Actions:||Needed conservation measures include maintaining forested conditions in areas within at least 200-250m of breeding sites. Also, regulatory agencies should attempt to minimize forest fragmentation.|
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Blaustein, A.B., Edmond, B., Kiesecker, J.M., Beatty, J.J. and Hokit, D.G. 1995. Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salmander eggs. Ecological Applications: 740-743.
Corkran, C.C. and Thoms, C. 1996. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Jones, T.R., Kluge, A.G. and Wolf, A.J. 1993. When theories and methodologies clash: a phylogenetic reanalysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Biology: 92-102.
Kraus, F. 1988. An empirical evaluation of the use of the ontogeny polarization criterion in phylogenetic inference. Systematic Zoology: 106-141.
Leonard, W.P., Brown, H.A., Jones, L.L.C., McAllister, K.R. and Storm, R.M. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Marco, A. 2001. Effects of prolonged terrestrial stranding of aquatic Ambystoma gracile egg masses on embryonic development. Journal of Herpetology: 510-513.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Shaffer, H.B., Clark, J.M. and Kraus, F. 1991. When molecules and morphology clash: a phylogenetic analysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Zoology: 284-303.
Snyder, R.C. 1956. Comparative features of the life histories of Ambystoma gracile (Baird) from populations at low and high altitudes. Copeia: 41-50.
Snyder, R.C. 1963. Ambystoma gracile. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Taylor, J. 1984. Comparative evidence for competition between the salamanders Ambystoma gracile and Taricha granulosa. Copeia: 672-683.
Titus, T.A. 1990. Genetic variation in two subspecies of Ambystoma gracile (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Journal of Herpetology: 107-111.
Titus, T.A. and Gaines, M.S. 1991. Genetic variation in coastal and montane populations of Ambystoma gracile (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas: 1-2.
Tyler, T., Liss, W.J., Ganio, L.M., Larson, G.L., Hoffman, R., Deimling, E., and Lomnicky, G. 1998. Interaction between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes. Conservation Biology: 94-105.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Ambystoma gracile. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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