|Scientific Name:||Lithobates vibicarius|
|Species Authority:||(Cope, 1894)|
Lithobates vibicaria (Cope, 1894)
Rana godmani Günther, 1900
Rana vibicaria (Cope, 1894)
Rana vibicaria (Cope, 1894)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ace ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Robert Puschendorf, Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Jay Savage, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Alan Pounds, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Alberth Rojas C and Olivier Castro|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population, largely due to chytridiomycosis. The generation length is assume to be five years.
|Range Description:||This species was previously widely distributed in the Cordillera de Tilarán, Cordillera Central, and Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and western Panama, at elevations of 1,500-2,700 m asl (Savage 2002). It is now known only with certainty from near Monteverde and the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco (exact locality not mapped here) in Costa Rica, with no recent reports from Panama.|
Native:Costa Rica; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It was once very common in Costa Rica but had apparently disappeared from the country by 1990. However, a single individual was reported in 2002 from near Monteverde, and larvae were found and reared in 2003. One small breeding pool is now known near Monteverde in the Monteverde Conservation League Children's Eternal Rainforest (Andrew Gray and Mark Wainwright in litt. To Bruce Young September 2007). This population was reported to be healthy, with several hundred animals, including numerous breeding pairs, juveniles and egg clutches observed (Andrew Gray and Mark Wainwright in litt. To Bruce Young). In November 2007, a second (possibly large) population was discovered close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco in Costa Rica, at 1,984m asl (Alberth Rojas C. and Olivier Castro pers. comm. 2008). The status of the population in Panama is unclear (there have been no recent surveys in the area as of September 2007 [Roberto Ibáñez pers. comm. 2007]), but it has presumably also declined, and possibly disappeared, from this country.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a semi-aquatic frog occurring in lower montane and lower portions of montane rainforest. The species prefers dense woods, but may also be found near bodies of water in clearings or pastures. The recently discovered population close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco, was found in an open area close to secondary forest and some shallow ponds of slow moving water, with additional animals found in secondary growth forest (Alberth Rojas C. pers. comm. 2008). Calling and mating take place at night, with males generally calling from vegetation in water. Breeding sites include shallow ponds, puddles or slow-moving waters. Eggs are attached to vegetation (Savage 2002).|
|Major Threat(s):||Chytridiomycosis appears to be the main cause of the decline of this species. It has disappeared from pristine habitat in Costa Rica, and probably also in Panama. Museum specimens of this species have been found to have chytrid fungi, and individuals have been found with severe chytridiomycosis (Lips 2003; R. Puschendorf unpubl.). Habitat loss, due to agriculture, logging, and human settlement, has presumably also affected this species. Animals from the recently discovered population close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco have been found with deformities, and there is some suggestion that agricultural chemicals, possibly applied to the grassy vegetation in the area, might be the cause of the deformities and the lack of larvae recently observed in the nearby stream (Alberth Rojas C. pers. comm. 2008).|
|Conservation Actions:||The species has been recorded from a number of protected areas. The current status of the surviving populations requires further investigation; given the threat of chytridiomycosis, recommended conservation measures should consider the establishment of a captive-breeding programme. There is an urgent need to maintain the habitat at the two known Costa Rican localities.|
Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overview of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, J.D., Webb, R.G. and Flores-Villela, O.A. (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Lips, K.R. 1998. Decline of a tropical montane amphibian fauna. Conservation Biology: 106-117.
Lips, K.R., Green, D.E. and Papendick, R. 2003. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica. Journal of Herpetology: 215-218.
Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology: 1307-1322.
Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.
Zweifel, R.G. 1964. Distribution and life history of the Central American frog Rana vibicaria. Copeia: 300-308.
|Citation:||Robert Puschendorf, Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Jay Savage, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Alan Pounds, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Alberth Rojas C and Olivier Castro 2010. Lithobates vibicarius. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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