Rana temporaria 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English European Common Frog
Spanish Rana Bermeja
Rana aragonensis Planca Soler, Rodriguez Vieites and Suarez Martinez, 1995
Rana honnorati Héron-Royer, 1881
Rana muta Laurenti, 1768
Rana platyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1847
Taxonomic Notes: Rana aragonensis is included as a synonym of R. temporaria following the work of Veith et al.(2002). Rana honnorati is included in R. temporaria following Veith et al. (2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Sergius Kuzmin, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone, Per Nyström, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Claude Miaud, Jon Loman, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:It is widespread throughout most of Europe, ranging from northern Spain to the Urals (absent from southern and central Iberia, much of southern Italy [scattered Appenine populations] and the Caucasus), and eastwards to the western part of West Siberia and northern Kazakhstan through northern Greece and Bulgaria. It has a patchy distribution in the mountainous parts of the Balkans. Recorded from sea level to elevations approaching 2,700m asl (Pyrenees).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Lower elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is generally very common, although localized declines have recently been noted in a number of western European countries (e.g.. Switzerland, Spain).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Many terrestrial (associated with woodland) and aquatic habitat types are used. Present in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, forested tundra and steppe, bush and shrublands, glades, grasslands, dry and wet meadows, marshes, fields, rural gardens, parks, and urban areas. Aquatic habitats include both temporary and permanent ponds, lakes and rivers; spawning and larval development occurs in these waterbodies. It does well in many modified habitats such as rural gardens.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. The main localized threat is the general pollution and drainage of breeding sites and wetlands. Over collection for medical research, food and commercial purposes is a threat in parts of its range. Deforestation might have led to a gradual "northward retreat" of the species over southern parts of its distribution. Overcollection for medical research has been a threat in the past, however the extent to which it is a current threat is unknown.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix III of the Berne Convention and on Annex V of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists, and is protected by national legislation in a number of countries. It is present in many protected areas. In parts of its range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.2. Grassland - Subarctic
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.10. Wetlands (inland) - Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Marginal  
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Research
 National : ✓ 

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Citation: Sergius Kuzmin, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone, Per Nyström, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Claude Miaud, Jon Loman, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss. 2009. Rana temporaria. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T58734A11834246. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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