|Scientific Name:||Lithobates palustris|
|Species Authority:||(LeConte, 1825)|
Rana palustris LeConte, 1825
|Taxonomic Notes:||A recently recognized but unnamed new cryptic species with a sister relationship to Lithobates palustris (Newman et al. 2012) suggests that a revision of the species' distribution may be needed to assess geographic variation and if there could be more cryptic species concealed under this nominal form.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Pelletier, S.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in Eastern North America from the Gaspé Peninsula to Wisconsin, south to southern South Carolina, northern Georgia, southern Mississippi and southeastern Texas (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of far southeastern U.S. and the prairie region of Illinois and vicinity.|
Native:Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are thousands of subpopulations; it is considered to be abundant and stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||There are various habitats in wooded regions, it can be found in the vicinity of cool clear streams and ponds in the north and in warm, turbid swamps in parts of the south. It disperses from the water's edge into fields and woods in some regions. When inactive, it hides at the bottom of water bodies or in caves in some areas. Eggs and larvae develop in standing water of woodland ponds, bog ponds, stream pools, sloughs and flooded ditches, often in sites with few or no fishes (e.g. Holomuzki 1995).|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
|Major Threat(s):||Local subpopulations are no doubt impacted by clear-cutting and urbanization, although the species as a whole is not considered to be threatened.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures needed. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Atlas des Amphibiens et des Reptiles du Québec. 2012. Available at: http://www.atlasamphibiensreptiles.qc.ca/.
Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.
DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1995. Oviposition sites and fish-deterrent mechanisms of two stream anurans. Copeia: 607-613.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2014).
Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.
Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.
Newman, C.E., Feinberg, J. A., Rissler, L.J., Burger, J., Shaffer, H.B. 2012. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 445–455.
Pace, A.E. 1974. Systematic and biological studies of the leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Complex) of the United States. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan: 1-140.
Schaaf, R.T., Jr. and Smith, P.W. 1971. Rana palustris. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-3.
Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Lithobates palustris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.|
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