|Scientific Name:||Lithobates palustris|
|Species Authority:||(LeConte, 1825)|
Rana palustris LeConte, 1825
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in Eastern North America from the Gaspe Peninsula to Wisconsin, south to southern South Carolina, northern Georgia, southern Mississippi, and southeastern Texas (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of far southeastern U.S. and the prairie region of Illinois and vicinity.|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are thousands of populations; it is abundant, and stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||There are various habitats in wooded regions; vicinity of cool clear streams and ponds in north; warm, turbid swamps in parts of south. Disperses from water's edge into fields and woods in some regions. When inactive, hides at bottom of water body or in caves in some areas. Eggs and larvae develop in standing water of woodland ponds, bog ponds, stream pools, sloughs, and flooded ditches; often in sites with few or no fishes (e.g., Holomuzki 1995).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats. Local populations are no doubt impacted by clear-cutting and urbanization.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures needed. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.
DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1995. Oviposition sites and fish-deterrent mechanisms of two stream anurans. Copeia: 607-613.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.
Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.
Pace, A.E. 1974. Systematic and biological studies of the leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Complex) of the United States. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan: 1-140.
Schaaf, R.T., Jr. and Smith, P.W. 1971. Rana palustris. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-3.
Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Lithobates palustris. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
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