|Scientific Name:||Pelophylax nigromaculatus|
|Species Authority:||(Hallowell, 1861)|
Pelophylax nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861
Rana esculenta (Hallowell, 1860) ssp. nigromaculata
Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sergius Kuzmin, Irina Maslova, Boris Tuniyev, Masafumi Matsui, Li Pipeng, Yoshio Kaneko|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is in significant decline (but at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because it is being over-harvested for food, making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is known from the Russian Far East (from Evreiskaya Autonomous Province to the lower reaches of the Amur River), central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In Japan this species is distributed in Honshu (except Sendai Plan, Kanto District and the area along Shinano River), Shikoku and Kyushu. There is a problem with the potential introduction of this species to other areas through the live animal trade. The small distribution in southern Yunnan probably represents an introduced population. This species occurs below 2,200m asl.|
Native:China; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and common in the Far East of Russia (with some localized declines), but it is declining in China (although it remains a common species). The decline is not considered to be so severe in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. In Japan the population is decreasing but it is not in significant decline, and is considered a common species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The terrestrial habitats of this species include meadows, leafy and mixed pine and broadleaved forests, bush lands and desert (in Turkmenistan). The species is also present in suitable modified habitats. Within these habitats it inhabits various types of stagnant waterbodies, including river pools, channels, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, swamps, ditches and paddy fields. The female deposits 1,800-3,000 eggs in shallow water. The larvae hatch in five to seven days and usually begin metamorphosis about 45 days later. They reach sexual maturity at three years of age.|
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are not well known. In some parts of Asia it has declined seriously because of over-exploitation in the live animal trade, water pollution, and changes in land management use from paddy fields to other crops.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is present in many protected areas.|
1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.
Adnagulov, E.V., Tarasov, I.G. and Gorobeiko, V.V. 2000. New data on amphibians and reptiles distribution in the Russian Far East. Russian Journal of Herpetology: 139-154.
Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.
Chen, B., Dong, Y., Liang, R., Li, B., Sun, Y. and Wang, Y. 1991. The Amphibian [sic] and Reptilian Fauna of Anhui. Anhui Publishing House of Science and Technology, Hefei.
Emelianov, A.A. 1944. Amfibii i Reptilii Sovetskogo Dalnego Vostoka [Amphibians and Reptiles of the Soviet Far East] (D.Sc.Diss.). Vladivostok.
Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.
Maeda, N. and Matsui, M. 1999. Frogs and Toads of Japan. Revised edition. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan Co., Ltd, Tokyo.
Maslova, I.V. 2001. Sravnitelnaya Kharakteristika Biologii Zemnovodnykh Yuzhnogo Primorya [Comparative Characterization of the Biology of Amphibians in the Southern Primorye]. PhD Dissertation, Vladivostok.
Sengoku, S., Hikida, T., Matsui, M. and Nakaya, K. 1996. The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan. Volume 5. Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes. Heibonsha Limited, Tokyo.
Szyndlar, Z. 1984. A description of a small collection of amphibians and reptiles from the People's Democratic Republic of Korea with notes on the distribution of the herpetofauna in that country. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia: 1-18.
Tagirova, V.T. 2000. Zemnovodnye Khabarovskogo Kraya [Amphibians of Khabarovskii Region]. Khabarovsk State Pedagogical Inst, Khabarovsk.
Yang, S.-Y. and Yu, C.H. 1978. Checklist of Korean amphibians. Bulletin Institute of Industrial Resources: 81-90.
Ye, C.-Y, Fei, L. and Hu, S.Q. 1993. Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
|Citation:||Sergius Kuzmin, Irina Maslova, Boris Tuniyev, Masafumi Matsui, Li Pipeng, Yoshio Kaneko. 2004. Pelophylax nigromaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58679A11809026.Downloaded on 30 June 2016.|
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