|Scientific Name:||Pelophylax nigromaculatus|
|Species Authority:||(Hallowell, 1861)|
Pelophylax nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861
Rana esculenta (Hallowell, 1860) subspecies nigromaculata
Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sergius Kuzmin, Irina Maslova, Boris Tuniyev, Masafumi Matsui, Li Pipeng, Yoshio Kaneko|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is in significant decline (but at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because it is being over-harvested for food, making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is known from the Russian Far East (from Evreiskaya Autonomous Province to the lower reaches of the Amur River), central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In Japan this species is distributed in Honshu (except Sendai Plan, Kanto District and the area along Shinano River), Shikoku and Kyushu. There is a problem with the potential introduction of this species to other areas through the live animal trade. The small distribution in southern Yunnan probably represents an introduced population. This species occurs below 2,200m asl.|
Native:China; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread and common in the Far East of Russia (with some localized declines), but it is declining in China (although it remains a common species). The decline is not considered to be so severe in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. In Japan the population is decreasing but it is not in significant decline, and is considered a common species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The terrestrial habitats of this species include meadows, leafy and mixed pine and broadleaved forests, bush lands and desert (in Turkmenistan). The species is also present in suitable modified habitats. Within these habitats it inhabits various types of stagnant waterbodies, including river pools, channels, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, swamps, ditches and paddy fields. The female deposits 1,800-3,000 eggs in shallow water. The larvae hatch in five to seven days and usually begin metamorphosis about 45 days later. They reach sexual maturity at three years of age.|
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are not well known. In some parts of Asia it has declined seriously because of over-exploitation in the live animal trade, water pollution, and changes in land management use from paddy fields to other crops.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is present in many protected areas.|
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|Citation:||Sergius Kuzmin, Irina Maslova, Boris Tuniyev, Masafumi Matsui, Li Pipeng, Yoshio Kaneko 2004. Pelophylax nigromaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 December 2014.|
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