|Scientific Name:||Pelophylax lessonae|
|Species Authority:||(Camerano, 1882)|
Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kuzmin, S., Beebee, T., Andreone, F., Nyström, P., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T., Kiss, I., Puky, M. & Vörös, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is distributed over much of Europe, ranging as far east as the southern Ural Mountains of Russia. It is absent from the Iberian Peninsula (except for introductions to Spain in Cáceres [Villasbuenas de Gata] and unspecified localities in Galicia, Cataluña and Comunidad Valenciana), much of Scandinavia, central and southern Italy (exact distribution not known but thought to be replaced by P. bergeri) and it is absent from the Balkans. There are two isolated relict populations - one near Oslo (Norway) and Uppland (Sweden) north of Stockholm. It is native (formerly extirpated) to the British Isles and has been recently reintroduced from Sweden. It might occur up to 1,550 m asl in southern parts of its range.|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Although this species is reported to be declining over much of its European range (Gasc et al. 1997), it remains widespread and common in Poland, the Baltic Republics, Moldova, Russia and the Ukraine.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is present in deciduous and mixed forests, forest steppe, steppe, bush lands (e.g. riparian alder groves), meadows, fields and fens. It may often be found in shallow stagnant waterbodies (usually without fish) such as lakes, ponds, swamps, large puddles, clay and gravel pits, and ditches, often covered with dense herbaceous vegetation. It breeds in these wetlands, but may be found hibernating away from waterbodies. It is not very adaptable, but can occur in slightly modified habitats.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is threatened by habitat loss through agricultural intensification and urbanization, channelization of waterbodies, drainage and pollution of wetlands, and the introduction of predatory fishes to breeding sites. It is additionally threatened by afforestation (in northern parts of the range) and competition with the larger sympatric R. ridibunda. The frog-leg trade (which is increasing) and high levels of pollution are leading to significant declines in populations within Yugoslavia (Dzukic 1996, Ljubisavljevic et al. 2003).|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries and is recorded on a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is present in many protected areas. In parts of the species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.|
1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.
1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.
Arnold, H.R. 1995. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. ITE research publication: 40.
Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.
Burny, J. and Parent, G.H. 1985. Les grenouilles vertes de le Belgique et des régions limitrophes. Données chorologiques et écologiques. Alytes: 12-33.
Dely, G. 1967. Kétéltűek-Amphibia: Magyarország Állatvilága, Faunae Hungariae. Ákadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
Dzukic, G., Kalezic, M., Aleksic, I. and Crnobrnja, J. 1996. Green frogs exploited in the former Yugoslavia. FrogLog: 34.
Garanin, V.I. 2000. The distribution of amphibians in the Volga-Kama region. Advances in Amphibian Research in the former Soviet Union, pp. 79-132.
Gent, T. 1999. The UK Pool Frog species action plan. FrogLog.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Kalezic, M. and Dzukic, G. 2001. Amphibian status in Serbia and Montenegro (FR Yugoslavia). FrogLog.
Kovács, T. 2002. Monitoring of amphibians and reptiles along the Drava River. FrogLog.
Krizmanic, I.I. 2008. Water frogs (Rana esculenta complex) in Serbia - morphological data. Archiv Biological Sciences, Belgrade 60: 449-457.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Ljubisavljevic, K., Dzukic, G. and Kalezic, M. 2003. Green frogs are greatly endangered in Serbia and Montenegro. FrogLog.
Milinski, M. 1994. Hybridogenetic Frogs on an Evolutionary Dead End Road. Trends in Ecology and Evolution: 62.
Mlynarski, M. 1966. Plazy I Gady Polski. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warszawa.
Plötner, J. 2005. Die Westpaläarkischen Wasserfrösche von Märtyrern der Wissenschaft zur Biologischen Sensation. Laurenti-Verlag, Bielefeld.
Puky, M. 2000. A kétéltûek védelme Magyarországon (Conservation of amphibians in Hungary). In: Faragó, S. (ed.), Gerinces állatfajok védelme (Conservation of vertebrate species), pp. 143-158. Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem Erdõmérnöki Kar, Sopron.
Puky, M. 2003. Amphibian mitigation measures in Central-Europe. In: Irwin, L.C., Garrett, P. and McDermott, K.P. (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 26-31 August, 2003, Lake Placid, New York, USA, pp. 413-429. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, USA.
Puky, M. 2003. Az újraárasztott Nyirkai Hany - Keleti Mórrétek (Hanság) herpetofaunája (Occurrence of amphibians and reptiles in the Nyirkai Hany Keleti Mórrétek wetland restoration area, Hanság, Hungary in the first year following inundation). Folia Historico Naturalia Musei Matraensis: 341-347.
Puky, M. et al. 2003. Preliminary herpetological atlas of Hungary. Varangy Akciócsoport Egyesület, Budapest.
Sindaco, R., Doria, G., Razzetti, E. and Bernini, F. 2006. Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles\\Atlante Degli Anfibi E Dei Rettili D'Italia. Societas Herpetologica Italica - Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze.
Sjögren, P. 1994. Distribution and extinction patterns within a northern metapopulation of the pool frog, Rana lessonae. Ecology: 1357-1367.
Smit, G. 1998. DAPTF-Netherlands Report. FrogLog.
Som, C., Anholt, B.R. and Reyer, H.-U. 2000. The effect of assortative mating on the coexistence of a hybridogenetic waterfrog and its sexual host. American Naturalist: 34-46.
Vogrin, N. 1997. The status of amphibians in Slovenia. FrogLog.
Vorburger, C. and Reyer, H.-U. 2003. A genetic mechanism of species replacement in European waterfrogs? Conservation Genetics: 141-155.
Wycherley, J., Doran, S. and Beebee, T.J.C. 2002. Frog calls echo microsatellite phylogeography in the European pool frog Rana lessonae. Journal of Zoology: 479-484.
Zeisset, I. and Beebee, T.J.C. 2001. Determination of biogeographical range: an application of molecular phylogeograpphy to the European pool frog Rana lessonae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: 933-938.
|Citation:||Kuzmin, S., Beebee, T., Andreone, F., Nyström, P., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T., Kiss, I., Puky, M. & Vörös, J. 2016. Pelophylax lessonae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58643A86643256.Downloaded on 31 August 2016.|
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