|Scientific Name:||Rana arvalis|
|Species Authority:||Nilsson, 1842|
Rana altaica Kastschenko, 1899
Rana oxyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1847
Rana terrestris Andrzejowski, 1832
|Taxonomic Notes:||The intraspecific systematics of this species need further study. Animals from the Altai Mountains have for a long time been considered as a separate subspecies of Rana arvalis or as the species Rana altaica. This has largely been on the basis of their shorter shins and large inner metatarsal tubercle. Similar frogs have since been found in other parts of the range of Rana arvalis (e.g.. In the north of European Russia and in the Urals) and in Siberia some animals display transient characters between Rana arvalis and the Altaic taxon. Until this taxonomic issue is fully resolved we include Rana altaica within Rana arvalis.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev, Trevor Beebee, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Wiesiek Babik, Milan Vogrin, Jon Loman, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is found throughout most of the northern, central and eastern parts of Europe, eastwards to Siberia (Yakutia and Baikal Lake), Russia and Xinjiang Province, China. It is no longer believed to be present in Serbia and the original records were probably in error (Kalezic and Dzukic, 2001). It is typically a lowland species, but can occur at altitudes close to 1,500m asl. (Altai Mountains).|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is generally common, and is abundant in central-eastern Europe. It is extinct in Switzerland in the extreme southwestern part of its wide range. It is considered to be rare and declining in China.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in a wide variety of habitats including tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, steppe, forest edges and glades, semi-desert, swamps, peatlands, moorlands, meadows, fields, bush lands, gardens. It has a breeding season, and spawning and larval development takes place in various stagnant water bodies of low acidity, including lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles and ditches. There is some evidence that the species can occur in agricultural landscapes, and in some areas it appears to be adapting to urban conditions (e.g.. Vershinin, 1997).|
|Major Threat(s):||It is threatened by the destruction and pollution of breeding ponds (including acidification) and adjacent wetland and terrestrial habitats, especially through urbanization, recreation, tourism, industry and overstocking of cattle. Additional threats are prolonged drought and predation of spawn by waterfowl. Chytrid fungus was detected in this species in Berlin, Germany - however the extent to which this is a threat is unknown.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries and has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is presumed to be present in a many protected areas. In parts of the species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.|
1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.
1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.
Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.
Dely, G. 1967. Kétéltűek-Amphibia: Magyarország Állatvilága, Faunae Hungariae. Ákadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
Dubois, A. 1982. Notes sur les grenouilles brunes (Groupe de Rana temporaria Linne, 1758). I. Introduction. Alytes: 56-70.
Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.
Fog, K. 1995. Amphibian conservation in Denmark. FrogLog.
Garanin, V.I. 2000. The distribution of amphibians in the Volga-Kama region. Advances in Amphibian Research in the former Soviet Union, pp. 79-132.
Grossenbacher, K. 1994. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Amphibien der Schweiz. In: BUWAL (ed.), Rote Liste der gefährdeten Tierarten in der Schweiz, pp. 33-34. BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft), Bern.
Ishchenko, V.G. 1978. Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
Ishchenko, V.G. and Skurykhina, E.S. 1981. On the ecological role of Rana arvalis in the zone of pre-taiga forests of Transuralia. Fauna Urala i Evropeiskogo Severa, pp. 57-62. Sverdlovsk.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 22 June 2009).
Kalezic, M. and Dzukic, G. 2001. Amphibian status in Serbia and Montenegro (FR Yugoslavia). FrogLog.
Kovács, T. 2002. Monitoring of amphibians and reptiles along the Drava River. FrogLog.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Loman, J. 2003. Inventering av vanlig groda och åkergroda i Skåne 2002. Skåne i utveckling: 1-28.
MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.
Mlynarski, M. 1966. Plazy I Gady Polski. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warszawa.
Puky, M. 2000. A kétéltûek védelme Magyarországon (Conservation of amphibians in Hungary). In: Faragó, S. (ed.), Gerinces állatfajok védelme (Conservation of vertebrate species), pp. 143-158. Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem Erdõmérnöki Kar, Sopron.
Puky, M. 2003. Amphibian mitigation measures in Central-Europe. In: Irwin, L.C., Garrett, P. and McDermott, K.P. (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 26-31 August, 2003, Lake Placid, New York, USA, pp. 413-429. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, USA.
Puky, M. 2003. Az újraárasztott Nyirkai Hany - Keleti Mórrétek (Hanság) herpetofaunája (Occurrence of amphibians and reptiles in the Nyirkai Hany Keleti Mórrétek wetland restoration area, Hanság, Hungary in the first year following inundation). Folia Historico Naturalia Musei Matraensis: 341-347.
Puky, M. et al. 2003. Preliminary herpetological atlas of Hungary. Varangy Akciócsoport Egyesület, Budapest.
Rafiñski, J. and Babik, W. 2000. Genetic differentiation among northern and southern populations of the moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson in Central Europe. Heredity: 610-618.
Severtsov, A.S., Lyapkov, S.M. and Surova, G.S. 1998. Relationships of the ecological niches in Rana temporaria and Rana arvalis. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii: 279-301.
Smit, G. 1998. DAPTF-Netherlands Report. FrogLog.
Taraszczuk, S.V. 1984. On the variability of Rana arvalis on the territory of Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii: 80-82.
Vershinin, V.L. 1997. Report from the Urals. FrogLog.
Vershinin, V., Pyastolova, O.A. and Trubetskaya, E.A. 1995. Rana arvalis Populations and Radioactive Pollution. FrogLog.
Vogrin, M. 2002. Amphibians. In: Vogrin, M. (ed.), Nature in municipality Kidricevo, pp. 99-106. Municipality Kidricevo.
Vogrin, N. 1997. The status of amphibians in Slovenia. FrogLog.
Ye, C.-Y, Fei, L. and Hu, S.Q. 1993. Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
|Citation:||Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev, Trevor Beebee, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Wiesiek Babik, Milan Vogrin, Jon Loman, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss 2009. Rana arvalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.|