Rana arvalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Rana arvalis
Species Authority: Nilsson, 1842
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Moor Frog, Altai Brown Frog (Altai Mountains Populations)
Rana altaica Kastschenko, 1899
Rana oxyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1847
Rana terrestris Andrzejowski, 1832
Taxonomic Notes: The intraspecific systematics of this species need further study. Animals from the Altai Mountains have for a long time been considered as a separate subspecies of Rana arvalis or as the species Rana altaica. This has largely been on the basis of their shorter shins and large inner metatarsal tubercle. Similar frogs have since been found in other parts of the range of Rana arvalis (e.g.. In the north of European Russia and in the Urals) and in Siberia some animals display transient characters between Rana arvalis and the Altaic taxon. Until this taxonomic issue is fully resolved we include Rana altaica within Rana arvalis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Babik, W., Vogrin, M., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found throughout most of the northern, central and eastern parts of Europe, eastwards to Siberia (Yakutia and Baikal Lake), Russia and Xinjiang Province, China. It is no longer believed to be present in Serbia and the original records were probably in error (Kalezic and Dzukic 2001). It is typically a lowland species, but can occur at altitudes close to 1,500 m asl (Altai Mountains).
Countries occurrence:
Austria; Belarus; Belgium; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is generally common, and is abundant in central-eastern Europe. It is extinct in Switzerland in the extreme southwestern part of its wide range. It is considered to be rare and declining in China.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in a wide variety of habitats including tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, steppe, forest edges and glades, semi-desert, swamps, peatlands, moorlands, meadows, fields, bush lands, gardens. It has a breeding season, and spawning and larval development takes place in various stagnant water bodies of low acidity, including lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles and ditches. There is some evidence that the species can occur in agricultural landscapes, and in some areas it appears to be adapting to urban conditions (e.g. Vershinin 1997).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is threatened by the destruction and pollution of breeding ponds (including acidification) and adjacent wetland and terrestrial habitats, especially through urbanization, recreation, tourism, industry and overstocking of cattle. Additional threats are prolonged drought and predation of spawn by waterfowl. Chytrid fungus was detected in this species in Berlin, Germany - however the extent to which this is a threat is unknown.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries and has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is presumed to be present in a many protected areas. In parts of the species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: Reformatted names of Assessor(s), Reviewer(s), Contributor(s), Facilitator(s) and/or Compiler(s).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
4. Grassland -> 4.2. Grassland - Subarctic
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.10. Wetlands (inland) - Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

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Citation: Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Babik, W., Vogrin, M., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I. 2009. Rana arvalis. (errata version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T58548A86232114. . Downloaded on 08 December 2016.
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