|Scientific Name:||Rana arvalis|
|Species Authority:||Nilsson, 1842|
Rana altaica Kastschenko, 1899
Rana oxyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1847
Rana terrestris Andrzejowski, 1832
|Taxonomic Notes:||The intraspecific systematics of this species need further study. Animals from the Altai Mountains have for a long time been considered as a separate subspecies of Rana arvalis or as the species Rana altaica. This has largely been on the basis of their shorter shins and large inner metatarsal tubercle. Similar frogs have since been found in other parts of the range of Rana arvalis (e.g.. In the north of European Russia and in the Urals) and in Siberia some animals display transient characters between Rana arvalis and the Altaic taxon. Until this taxonomic issue is fully resolved we include Rana altaica within Rana arvalis.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Babik, W., Vogrin, M., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is found throughout most of the northern, central and eastern parts of Europe, eastwards to Siberia (Yakutia and Baikal Lake), Russia and Xinjiang Province, China. It is no longer believed to be present in Serbia and the original records were probably in error (Kalezic and Dzukic 2001). It is typically a lowland species, but can occur at altitudes close to 1,500 m asl (Altai Mountains).|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is generally common, and is abundant in central-eastern Europe. It is extinct in Switzerland in the extreme southwestern part of its wide range. It is considered to be rare and declining in China.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in a wide variety of habitats including tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, steppe, forest edges and glades, semi-desert, swamps, peatlands, moorlands, meadows, fields, bush lands, gardens. It has a breeding season, and spawning and larval development takes place in various stagnant water bodies of low acidity, including lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles and ditches. There is some evidence that the species can occur in agricultural landscapes, and in some areas it appears to be adapting to urban conditions (e.g. Vershinin 1997).|
|Major Threat(s):||It is threatened by the destruction and pollution of breeding ponds (including acidification) and adjacent wetland and terrestrial habitats, especially through urbanization, recreation, tourism, industry and overstocking of cattle. Additional threats are prolonged drought and predation of spawn by waterfowl. Chytrid fungus was detected in this species in Berlin, Germany - however the extent to which this is a threat is unknown.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries and has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is presumed to be present in a many protected areas. In parts of the species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.|
|Errata reason:||Reformatted names of Assessor(s), Reviewer(s), Contributor(s), Facilitator(s) and/or Compiler(s).|
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Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.
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Ishchenko, V.G. 1978. Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
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Kovács, T. 2002. Monitoring of amphibians and reptiles along the Drava River. FrogLog 52.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
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Loman, J. 2003. Inventering av vanlig groda och åkergroda i Skåne 2002. Skåne i utveckling 2003(19): 1-28.
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Puky, M. 2003. Az újraárasztott Nyirkai Hany - Keleti Mórrétek (Hanság) herpetofaunája (Occurrence of amphibians and reptiles in the Nyirkai Hany Keleti Mórrétek wetland restoration area, Hanság, Hungary in the first year following inundation). Folia Historico Naturalia Musei Matraensis 27: 341-347.
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Vershinin, V.L. 1997. Report from the Urals. FrogLog 21.
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|Citation:||Kuzmin, S., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ishchenko, V., Tuniyev, B., Beebee, T., Anthony, B.P., Schmidt, B., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Babik, W., Vogrin, M., Loman, J., Cogalniceanu, D., Kovács, T. & Kiss, I. 2009. Rana arvalis. (errata version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T58548A86232114.Downloaded on 23 July 2017.|