Nyctibatrachus major


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Nyctibatrachus major
Species Authority: Boulenger, 1882
Rana travancorica Annandale, 1910
Taxonomic Notes: There is quite considerable intraspecific variation in this taxon (Biju 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor(s): S.D. Biju, M.S. Ravichandran, Anand Padhye, Sushil Dutta
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in the Western Ghats of India.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a wide distribution in the Western Ghats of India. It has been recorded from elevations up to 1,000m asl in Kerala.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no information on the population status of this species, partly hindered by the large degree of intraspecific variation evident in this species.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits torrential streams in evergreen, moist deciduous forest. Although it may be found in forest edge, it does not occur in degraded habitats. Breeding takes place in streams.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The conversion of forested land to agricultural use (including tea, coffee, and paddy fields), and the harvesting of wood and timber by local people are threats to this species. The construction of roads and the development of tourism in the region are leading to further loss and degradation of the species' habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species has been recorded from several protected areas throughout the Western Ghats. There is an urgent need for a taxonomic revision of this species, since it almost certainly represents a complex of several distinct and isolated forms. It is protected by national legislation.

Bibliography [top]

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Krishnamurthy, S.V. 1997. Nyctibatrachus major in Malnad, India. FrogLog.

Krishnamurthy, S.V. and Hussain. 2000. Amphibian fauna of Kudremukh National Park, Western Ghats, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: 436-439.

Krishnamurthy, S.V., Katre, S. and Reddy, S.R. 1992. Structure of the femoral gland and habitat features of an endemic anuran, Nyctibatrachus major (Boulenger). Journal of the Indian Institute of Science: 385-398.

Padhye, A.D., Mahabaleshwarkar, M. and Ghate, H.V. 2002. An overview of amphibian fauna of Pune District with special reference to their status in and around Pune city. ZOO's Print Journal: 757-763.

Pillai, R.S. 1978. On Nyctibatrachus major Boul. (Ranidae) with a description of its tadpole. Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India: 135-140.

Pillai, R.S. and Pattabiraman, R. 1990. Amphibians from Sabarigiri forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, including a new species of Micrixalus. Records of the Zoological Survey of India: 383-390.

Ravichandran, M.S. 1996. Studies on the amphibia of southern-Western Ghats. ZOO's Print Journal: 41-42.

Vasudevan, K., Kumar, A. and Chellam, R. 2001. Structure and composition of rainforest floor amphibian communities in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. Current Science: 406-412.

Citation: S.D. Biju, M.S. Ravichandran, Anand Padhye, Sushil Dutta 2004. Nyctibatrachus major. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.
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