|Scientific Name:||Limnonectes paramacrodon|
|Species Authority:||(Inger, 1966)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Near Threatened since although this species is still relatively widely distributed, it depends on streams and rivers in areas of swamp forest habitat, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining very rapidly due to widespread forest loss within its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is known from scattered localities in Peninsular Malaysia (Berry 1975; Dring 1979) and Borneo, and it has been recorded from Singapore (Lim and Lim 1992), southern Thailand (Chan-ard pers. comm.) and Natuna Besar and Sumatra, Indonesia. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest. It occurs at altitudes below 200m asl.|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Singapore; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information on its population status.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It generally inhabits lowland swamp forest areas with small rivers and streams. Adults are found along clay and gravel stream banks, and breeding takes place in these streams. It appears to be able to tolerate selective logging, but does not adapt to more heavily modified habitats.|
|Major Threat(s):||The principal threats to this species are destruction of forests through clear-cutting, conversion to non-timber plantations, urbanization, fire and water extraction.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is present in protected areas in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula (such as Pasoh Forest Reserve and Tasek Bera). Effective preservation of the remaining lowland swamp forest is the main conservation measure recommended for this species.|
Berry, P.Y. 1975. The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Dring, J.C.M. 1979. Amphibians and reptiles from northern Trengganu, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new geckos, Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Bulletin British Museum (Natural History) - Zoolog: 181-241.
Inger, R.F. and Stuebing, R.B. 1997. A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo. Borneo Natural History Publishers, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Leong, T.M., Grismer, L. and Mumpuni. 2002. Preliminary checklists of the herpetofauna of the Anambas and Natuna Islands (South China Sea). Hamadryad: 165-174.
Lim, K.P. and Lim, F.L.K. 1992. A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore.
OEPP - Office of Environmental Planning and Policy [of Thailand]. 1997. Proceedings Conference Status Biological Resources in Thailand 1996. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Bangkok.
|Citation:||Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern 2004. Limnonectes paramacrodon. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 December 2013.|
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