Limnonectes paramacrodon 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Dicroglossidae

Scientific Name: Limnonectes paramacrodon
Species Authority: (Inger, 1966)
Common Name(s):
English Lesser Swamp Frog, Tawau Wart Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Near Threatened since although this species is still relatively widely distributed, it depends on streams and rivers in areas of swamp forest habitat, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining very rapidly due to widespread forest loss within its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from scattered localities in Peninsular Malaysia (Berry 1975; Dring 1979) and Borneo, and it has been recorded from Singapore (Lim and Lim 1992), southern Thailand (Chan-ard pers. comm.) and Natuna Besar and Sumatra, Indonesia. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest. It occurs at altitudes below 200m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Singapore; Thailand
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no information on its population status.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It generally inhabits lowland swamp forest areas with small rivers and streams. Adults are found along clay and gravel stream banks, and breeding takes place in these streams. It appears to be able to tolerate selective logging, but does not adapt to more heavily modified habitats.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The principal threats to this species are destruction of forests through clear-cutting, conversion to non-timber plantations, urbanization, fire and water extraction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is present in protected areas in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula (such as Pasoh Forest Reserve and Tasek Bera). Effective preservation of the remaining lowland swamp forest is the main conservation measure recommended for this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Berry, P.Y. 1975. The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dring, J.C.M. 1979. Amphibians and reptiles from northern Trengganu, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new geckos, Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Bulletin British Museum (Natural History) - Zoolog: 181-241.

Inger, R.F. and Stuebing, R.B. 1997. A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo. Borneo Natural History Publishers, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Leong, T.M., Grismer, L. and Mumpuni. 2002. Preliminary checklists of the herpetofauna of the Anambas and Natuna Islands (South China Sea). Hamadryad: 165-174.

Lim, K.P. and Lim, F.L.K. 1992. A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore.

OEPP - Office of Environmental Planning and Policy [of Thailand]. 1997. Proceedings Conference Status Biological Resources in Thailand 1996. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Bangkok.

Citation: Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern. 2004. Limnonectes paramacrodon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58363A11771741. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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