Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Pipidae

Scientific Name: Pipa pipa
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Surinam Toad
Spanish Rana Tablacha, Rana Comun De Celdillas, Aparo, Sapo Chinelo, Sapo Chola, Sapo De Celdas
Pipa americana Laurenti, 1768
Pipa americana Laurenti, 1768
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-05
Assessor(s): Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Débora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Jerry Hardy, Manfred Beier
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread in the Amazon basin of South America in Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. It is also present at scattered localities in southern and eastern Trinidad Island (in Trinidad and Tobago). It is a lowland species found below 400m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Upper elevation limit (metres): 400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is common throughout its range.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Aquatic species that lives in slow flowing watercourses, backwater of streams, and ponds and pools in tropical rainforest, hiding under submerged leaf-litter. They also occur in flooded forest. They seldom venture onto land, where they move clumsily. Direct development takes place on the dorsum of the adult.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is not seriously threatened, but local populations are probably impacted by habitat loss and degradation due to logging, agricultural expansion, and human settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

Bibliography [top]

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Citation: Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Débora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Jerry Hardy, Manfred Beier. 2010. Pipa pipa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T58163A11743133. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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