|Scientific Name:||Mantidactylus ulcerosus|
|Species Authority:||(Boettger, 1880)|
Limnodytes ulcerosus Boettger, 1880
Rana ulcerosa (Boettger, 1880)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This wide-ranging species, which occurs in both wet and dry forest, is probably a complex of many species. Lehtinen and Ramanamanjato (2006) recorded Rhombophryne cf. tetradactyla from Sainte Luce and Mandena, but the identity of these animals requires further study and they are not included in this concept of the Mantidactylus ulcerosus. Records from Isalo have been confirmed as belonging to an undescribed species, and the same is the case for Ranomafana records where other closely related species are present instead of M. ulcerosus, but these are retained within the current concept pending formal description (G.M. Rosa pers. comm. March 2016). The same might be true for the populations in the southeast; an expedition a few years ago to the area of Saint Luce and Tsitongambarika and did not record the species - specimens were found to be from other closely related species (G.M. Rosa pers. comm. March 2016). For the Mantadia area there was no confirmation of the species' presence using molecular data and Gehring et al. (2010) did not record M. ulcerosus in their extensive survey of the northeast cost (above Toamasina) or the Betampona area (G.M. Rosa pers. comm. March 2016).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Rosa, G.M., Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Luedtke, J. & Hobin, L.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and presumed large population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed in Madagascar, except the high plateau and in the arid southwest, between 0-1,600 m asl. It has recently been confirmed as occurring on Nosy Komba Island (Roberts and Daly 2014) and on the Sahamalaza Peninsula (Penny et al. 2016). The map is not very meaningful representation of its range, since the species is an unresolved taxonomic complex.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a very abundant species, but the population trend is unknown.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is associated with (usually slow-flowing) streams in rainforest, heavily degraded areas and in open swampy areas. It does survive in agricultural land. It breeds in many types of water, especially slow-flowing streams.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
It is generally not seriously threatened since it is very adaptable. However, some of the cryptic species within the complex might prove to be threatened, especially by pollution of streams and extreme opening up of the habitat.
Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015).
It occurs in many protected areas including the recently designated Réserve de la Biosphère du Sahamalaza-Iles Radama. Penny et al. (2016) noted that the Ankarafa Forest and Anabohazo forest fragments on in this Reserve both receive protection and contain core protected zones, and that this has halted farming activities, allowing the species to colonise newly vegetated areas.
Further research is also essential to fully understand the distribution, origin, type and virulence of Bd lineages found in Madagascar (Bletz et al. 2015).
Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Vences, M. and Randrianirina, J.E. 2003. The amphibians and reptiles of Nosy Be island (NW Madagascar) and nearby islands: a case study of diversity and conservation of an insular fauna. Journal of Natural History 37: 2119-2149.
Bletz, M.C., Rosa, G.M., Andreone, F., Courtois, E.A., Schmeller, D.S., Rabibisoa, N.H.C, Rabemananjara, F.C.E., Raharivololoniaina, L., Vences, M., Weldon, C., Edmonds, D., Raxworthy, C.J., Harris, R.N., Fisher, M.C. and Crottini, A. 2015. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific Reports 5(8633): 1-10.
Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. 1979. Biosystematics of the Malagasy frogs. I. Mantellinae (Ranidae). Beaufortia 29(352): 1-77.
Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. and Blanc, C.P. 1991. Amphibiens (première partie). Fauna de Madagascar 75: 1-379.
Gehring, P.-S., Ratsoavina, F.M. and Vences, M. 2010. Filling the gaps - amphibian and reptile records from lowland forests in eastern Madagascar. Salamandra 46(4): 214-234.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1992. Zur Kenntnis der Gattungen Boophis, Aglyptodactylus und Mantidactylus (Amphibia: Anura) aus Madagaskar mit Beschreibung einer neuen Art. Bonner Zoologische Beiträege 43: 45-77.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Second Edition. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Lehtinen, R.M. and Ramanamanjato, J.-B. 2006. Effects of rainforest fragmentation and correlates of local extinction in a herpetofauna from Madagascar. Applied Herpetology 3: 95-110.
Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Raselimanana, A.P. and Ramanamanjato, J.-B. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andohahela, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology 94: 155-173.
Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of the amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals at Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.
Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of Andringitra Massif: a study of elevational distribution and local endemicity. Fieldiana Zoology 85: 158-170.
Roberts, S.H, and Daly, C. 2014. A rapid herpetofaunal assessment of Nosy Komba Island, northwestern Madagascar, with new locality records for seventeen species. Salamandra 50: 18-26.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Mantidactylus ulcerosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T57530A84177292.Downloaded on 28 March 2017.|
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