Mantella milotympanum 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Mantella milotympanum Staniszewski, 1996
Common Name(s):
English Black-eared Mantella, Black-eared Golden Mantella
Synonym(s):
Mantella aurantiaca ssp. milotympanum Staniszewski, 1996
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: This species and Mantella crocea might represent colour variants of the same species (M. Vences and F. Glaw pers. comm. August 2016, Chiari et al. 2004). Subpopulations with intermediate characteristics between M. crocea and M. milotympanum have been recorded from north of Fierenana, Andriabe, Savakoanina and the Zahamena reserve (Chiari et al. 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-12-09
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Edmonds, D., Glaw, F., Scherz, M.D., Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L.
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 78 km2, area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 10 km2, it occurs in one threat-defined location, and there is ongoing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species was previously only known from several fragmented localities in east-central Madagascar covering a small area south of Fierenana. It is now known to occur at localities southeast of Fierenana, along the Ivohitra river and around Ranomainty, between 887–1,079 m Asl (Razafimahatratra et al. 2009). The EOO of this range is 78 km2. and the AOO is estimated to be less than 10 km2.

There are additional records of cf. milotypanum that could expand the range slightly (M. Vences pers. comm. August 2016), but these are not included within this assessment due to the uncertainty around their identity.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:9
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):889
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a locally common species and has been observed at high densities. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a terrestrial species living in gallery forest around large swamps, and in seasonally flooded forest, but is not found outside forest. Breeding is the same as other species in the genus, with the eggs being laid on land and the larvae being washed into swamps by rain. It is very seasonal in its breeding, and hard to find when it is not breeding.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species has been found in the international pet trade, however wild specimens have not been found for nearly five years within the trade (D. Edmonds pers. comm. November 2015).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The area where this species occurs is severely threatened, with its forest habitat receding due to the impacts of subsistence agriculture (including livestock grazing), timber extraction, charcoal production, the spread of eucalyptus, fires, and expanding human settlements. It has, in the past, been collected in large numbers by commercial collectors, and trade might pose a major threat to the species.

Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is found in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor (Razafimahatratra et al. 2009). It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Needed
Protection of remaining habitat is a top priority, particularly given the high rate of habitat loss and degradation within its range. This species has been assessed through Amphibian Ark as being in need of ex-situ conservation efforts (D. Edmonds pers. comm. November 2015), and any trade should be carefully regulated.

Research Needed
The species requires careful population monitoring, and further research is essential to fully understand the distribution, origin, type and virulence of Bd lineages found in Madagascar (Bletz et al. 2015). Taxonomic research is also required to clarify the status of this species, especially in relation to M. crocea (D. Edmonds pers. comm. November 2015).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.4. Problematic species/disease of unknown origin -> 8.4.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F., Cadle, J.E., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S.N., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2005. A species review of amphibian extinction risks in Madagascar: results from the Global Amphibian Assessment. Conservation Biology 19: 1790-1802.

Andreone, F., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N.A.C., Randriamahazo, H., Randrianasolo, H., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2008. Update of the Global Amphibian Assessment for Malagasy amphibians in light of new species discoveries, taxonomic changes, and new field information. In: F. Andreone (ed.), A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar, Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, 419-436.

Andreone, F., Mercurio, V. and Mattioli, F. 2006. Between environmental degradation and international pet trade: conservation strategies for the threatened amphibians of Madagascar. Natura – Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, (Milano, Italy) 95(2): 81-96.

Bletz, M.C., Rosa, G.M., Andreone, F., Courtois, E.A., Schmeller, D.S., Rabibisoa, N.H.C, Rabemananjara, F.C.E., Raharivololoniaina, L., Vences, M., Weldon, C., Edmonds, D., Raxworthy, C.J., Harris, R.N., Fisher, M.C. and Crottini, A. 2015. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific Reports 5(8633): 1-10.

Chiari, Y., Vences, M., Vieites, D.R., Rabemananjara, F., Bora, P., Ramilijaona Ravoahangimalala, O. and Meyer, A. 2004. New evidence for parallel evolution of colour patterns in Malagasy poison frogs (Mantella). Molecular Ecology 13: 3763-3774.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Jovanovic, O., Rabemananjara, F., Ramilijaona, O., Andreone, F., Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2006. Frogs of Madagascar, Genus Mantella. Pocket Identification Guide. Conservation International. Tropical Pocket Guide Series, Washington DC.

Kolby, J.E., Smith, K.M., Ramirez, S.D., Rabemananjara, F., Pessier, A.P., Brunner, J.L., Goldberg, C.S., Berger, L. and Skerratt, L.F. 2015. Rapid response to evaluate the presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in wild amphibian populations in Madagascar. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0134524. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134524.

Randrianirina, J.E. 2005. Nouvelles données sur la distribution d'une espèce de grenouille menacée dans la foret de Fierenana, Madagascar, Mantella milotympanum (Amphibia, Mantellidae). Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France 115: 48-54.

Razafimahatratra, B., Fatroandrianjafinonjasolomiovazo, N., Andriantsimanarilafy, R. and Jenkins, R. 2009. The status of Mantella milotympanum in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor, eastern Madagascar. Herpetology Notes 2: 207-213.

Staniszewski, M. 1996. Mantellas in captivity. Reptilian Magazine 4: 16-26.

Staniszewski, M. 2001. Mantellas. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Vences, M., Glaw, F. and Böhme, W. 1999. A review of the genus Mantella (Anura, Ranidae, Mantellinae): taxonomy, distribution and conservation of the Malagasy poison frogs. Alytes 17: 3-72.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Mantella milotympanum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T57448A84167640. . Downloaded on 24 October 2017.
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