Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus
Species Authority: Schiøtz, 1975
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: This species is possibly a subspecies of Hyperolius mitchelli (Schiøtz 1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-10-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Harvey, J., Malonza, P., Drewes, R. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J., Luedtke, J. & Lutz, M.L.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 426 km2, it is only known from two locations, and there is continuing decline in the quality and the extent of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from the Shimba Hills National Reserve south to Buda Forest in coastal Kenya where it is found between 30-400 m asl. South of Mombasa it is replaced by Hyperolius mitchelli implying its range is restricted to these areas. There are two threat defined locations (in and outside of the Shimba Hills National Reserve). Using the range as a proxy, the extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 426 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):30
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is abundant in suitable habitat and, while its population size is unknown, it is suspected to be decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss. Wetland modification outside the National Reserve may negatively affect the population.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in a mosaic of moist coastal forest and densely vegetated wetlands (including moderately degraded former forest) where it breeds by larval development.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Outisde the National Reserve the species is threatened by deforestation caused by expanding agriculture and human settlements. Chytrid fungus has been recorded in the Shimba Hills, but it is not known if this species is affected (Kielgast et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, which is a popular tourist destination and is therefore relatively well managed. It also occurs in the Gongoni and Buda Forest Reserves which are in need of improved management.

Conservation Needed
Ongoing and improved habitat protection and management is required.

Research Needed
Further research is required on the species distribution, population status, and taxonomy. Additional studies should identify amphibian species at risk of chytridiomycosis infection in the Shimba Hills.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Unknown
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: J.C. Lovett and S.K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kielgast, J., Rödder, D., Veith, M. and Lötters, S. 2010. Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus in Kenya. Animal Conservation 13(1): 1-8.

Schiøtz, A. 1975. The Treefrogs of Eastern Africa. Steenstrupia, Copenhagen.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T56200A17183208. . Downloaded on 23 October 2016.
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