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Afrixalus sylvaticus 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Afrixalus sylvaticus
Species Authority: Schiøtz, 1974
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: Pickersgill (2000, 2005) considers this form to be a subspecies of Afrixalus stuhlmanni, with which it hybridizes as forests are cleared. We follow Schiøtz (1999, and pers. comm.) in considering it to be a valid species. However, we follow Pickersgill (2005) and K. Howell (pers. comm.) in considering it to occur in the coastal areas of Tanzania, as well as in the Shimba Hills in Kenya.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-10-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Howell, K., Pickersgill, M. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Luedtke, J.
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) has been estimated as 16,959 km2, the ongoing threat of habitat loss and degradation means that the species' is thought to occur in fewer than 10 threat-defined locations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from the Shimba Hills in southern coastal Kenya, south through the East Usambara foothills in north-eastern Tanzania, as far south as the Kazizumbwi Forest in central coastal Tanzania. There is an unconfirmed record from further north along the Tana River in eastern Kenya. While its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 16,959 km2, it occurs only very patchily within the mapped range due to limited suitable habitat.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1-9
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is fairly abundant where it occurs. However, due to ongoing habitat loss its population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species of lowland forest that can survive in secondary growth and plantations, but not in completely degraded habitats. It breeds in temporary pools and water-filled depressions in forest.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is continuing loss and degradation of its forest habitat due to the expansion of agriculture, wood extraction, and human settlements. Although it can tolerate a degree of degraded forest and secondary growth, these habitats are also known to be suitable for A. stuhlmanni with which this species hybridizes, and this is probably the most serious threat to the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Shimba Hills National Park.

Conservation Needed
The maintenance and protection of tracts of lowland coastal forest habitat is essential to ensure the persistence of this species.

Research Needed
Further research is required on the species' taxonomy, population status, and life history and ecology. Ongoing monitoring would help to track the impact of habitat loss and degradation on the hybridization of the species with Afrixalus stuhlmanni.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: J.C. Lovett and S.K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Pickersgill, M. 2005. The taxonomy and ethology of the Afrixalus stuhlmanni superspecies (Anura: Hyperoliidae). Steenstrupia: 1-38.

Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Schiøtz, A. 1974. Revision of the genus Afrixalus (Anura) in eastern Africa. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening: 9-18.

Schiøtz, A. 1975. The Treefrogs of Eastern Africa. Steenstrupia, Copenhagen.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Afrixalus sylvaticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T56080A84396971. . Downloaded on 06 December 2016.
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