Afrixalus stuhlmanni 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Afrixalus stuhlmanni
Species Authority: (Pfeffer, 1893)
Synonym(s):
Megalixalus stuhlmanni Pfeffer, 1893
Megalixalus stuhlmanni Pfeffer, 1893
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: There have been considerable doubts as to the validity of this species and it was considered to be a nomen dubium by Pickersgill (1996). However, we follow Pickersgill (2000, 2005) in considering it to be a valid form.

Pickersgill (2005) considers Afrixalus sylvaticus to be a subspecies of A. stuhlmanni, but for the time being we retain them here as separate, though closely related, species that hybridise in areas where forest has been cleared. Afrixalus brachycnemis and Afrixalus septentrionalis have also been synonymized with A. stuhlmanni, but for the time being we will also retain them as separate (M. Menegon pers. comm. April 2015).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-10-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Howell, K., Pickersgill, M. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and its presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is traditionally known only from Zanzibar Island in Tanzania. However, recent studies have shown that it occurs on the Tanzanian mainland from Amboni in the northeast, south to Liwale in the southeast, and inland to the Kilombero floodplain, as well as on Zanzibar. It is generally found below 300m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is an abundant species in suitable locations.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species of grassy pools and marshes in humid shrubland, mixed farmland and savannah. It breeds by larval development in marshes, shrub-dominated wetlands, and permanent pools.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overall it is not highly threatened, and is an adaptable species, but certain populations are affected by urbanization and water pollution. It is hybridising widely with the forest species, Afrixalus sylvaticus, in areas where forests have been destroyed or heavily disturbed.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It probably occurs in several protected areas. More research is needed on its taxonomy, population status, natural history, threats and conservation actions.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Unknown
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Pickersgill, M. 1996. A new subspecies of Afrixalus from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and comments on its superspecies affinities. Durban Museum Novitates: 49-59.

Pickersgill, M. 2000. The ethology and systematics of eastern and southern African savanna Afrixalus (Anura: Hyperoliidae). Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Leeds.

Pickersgill, M. 2005. The taxonomy and ethology of the Afrixalus stuhlmanni superspecies (Anura: Hyperoliidae). Steenstrupia: 1-38.

Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Afrixalus stuhlmanni. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T56079A3034596. . Downloaded on 29 July 2016.
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