Afrixalus nigeriensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Afrixalus nigeriensis Schiøtz, 1963
Common Name(s):
English Nigeria Banana Frog
Afrixalus congicus ssp. nigeriensis Schiøtz, 1963
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species is closely related to Afrixalus equatorialis (Schiøtz 1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-05-04
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Sandberger, L., Rödel , M.-O., Kouamé, N.G. & Gonwouo, N.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J., Luedtke, J., Hobin, L., Lutz, M.L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from extreme southeastern Guinea through Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire and western Ghana, with a disjunct population in southwestern Nigeria. Records on the Guinean side of Mount Nimba were made in 2006 (A. Hillers unpubl. data). In 2010, it was found in the Yaya Classified Forest (Alépé region, southeast Côte d'Ivoire) (N.G. Kouamé pers. comm. May 2012), and in Atewa in Ghana in 2006 (N.G. Kouame pers. comm. June 2012). It has recently been confirmed in Tanoé-Ehy Swamp Forests (Kpan et al. 2014) and Yakassé-Mé village forest, southeastern Côte d'Ivoire (Kouamé et al. 2014). In Côte d'Ivoire it is found in lowland areas (500–1,000 m Asl), but it is likely to occur much lower in other parts of its range down to sea level. As such, the northern boundary of the range map follows the WWF Ecozones for Western and Eastern Guinean forests, and Nigerian lowland forest.
Countries occurrence:
Côte d'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Nigeria
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is rare in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire and in Atewa (N.G. Kouame pers. comm. June 2012). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found mostly in primary rainforest, although it has been recorded in farm bush adjacent to forest (degraded forest and farmland) (Hillers and Rödel 2007) and regenerating secondary forest along an old logging road (N.L. Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012). It is often found with Afrixalus dorsalis but separated by microhabitat preferences, with A. dorsalis using more open, exposed sites, and this species calling from dense vegetation. During breeding, the eggs are laid on leaves overhanging temporary ponds, into which the larvae fall and develop.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest habitat throughout the region is decreasing as a result of agricultural encroachment (coffee and cacao plantations in Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana), expanding human settlements, and logging.

Individuals from Nigeria tested positive for Bd (Imasuen et al. 2011) suggesting that chytridiomycosis could be a threat to this species, although no mortalities or ill effects have yet been observed.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species occurs in several protected areas including the Mount Nimba World Heritage Site in Guinea, Yaya Classified Forest in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire (N.G. Kouame pers. comm. May 2012), Atewa Range Forest Reserve in Ghana (N.G. Kouame pers. comm. June 2012) and Okomu National Park in Nigeria (Imasuen et al. 2011). 

Research Needed
Research is needed for the life history of this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal season:resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Unknown
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Hillers, A. and Rödel, M.-O. 2007. The amphibians of three national forests in Liberia, West Africa. Salamandra 43(1): 1-10.

Imasuen, A.A., Aisien, M.S.O., Weldon, C., Dalton, D.L., Kotze, A. and Du Preez, L.H. 2011. Occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Amphibian Populations of Okomu National Park, Nigeria. Herpetological Review 42(3): 379-382.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Kouamé, N.G.G., Konan, J.C.B.Y.N., Adepo-Gourène, A.B., Gourène, G. and Rödel, M.-O. 2014. The amphibians of the Yakassé-Mé village forest, a threatened rainforest of south-eastern Ivory Coast. Herpetology Notes 7: 657-665.

Kpan, T.F., Adeba, P.J., Kouamé, N.G., Koné, I.Kouassi, K.P. and Rödel, M.-O. 2014. The anuran fauna of a Volunteer Nature Reserve: the Tanoé-Ehy Swamp Forests, south-eastern Ivory Coast, West Africa. Zoosystematics and Evolution 90(2): 261-270.

Rödel, M.-O. 2000. Les communautes d'amphibiens dans le Parc National de Tai, Cote d'Ivoire. Les anoures comme bio-indicateurs de l 'etat des habitats. Rapport de Centre Suisse de la Recherche Scientifique, Abidjan 9: 108-113.

Rödel, M.-O. and Branch, W.R. 2002. Herpetological survey of the Haute Dodo and Cavally forests, western Ivory Coast, Part I: Amphibians. Salamandra 38: 245-268.

Rödel, M.-O., Gil, M., Agyei, A.C., Leaché, A.D., Diaz, R.E., Fujita, M.K. and Ernst, R. 2005. The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana. Salamandra 41: 107-127.

Schiøtz, A. 1963. The amphibians of Nigeria. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 125: 1-92.

Schiøtz, A. 1967. The treefrogs (Rhacophoridae) of West Africa. Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensi 25: 1-346.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Afrixalus nigeriensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T56071A16814953. . Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
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