Ptychohyla hypomykter


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Ptychohyla hypomykter
Species Authority: McCranie & Wilson, 1993
Common Name(s):
English Copan Stream Frog
Taxonomic Notes: Much of the scientific literature uses the name Ptychohyla spinipollex for this species. McCranie and Wilson (1993b) explain the correct usage of the names.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-08-18
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A.
Contributor(s): Vásquez-Almazán, C., Köhler, G., Cruz, G., Kolby , J., Mendelson, J.R., Wilson, L.D., Acevedo, M. & McCranie, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Nowakowski , J.
Listed as Least Concern because there is lack of quantitative evidence for ongoing or future declines and the species is distributed throughout much of Central America, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) estimated to be 124,680 km2. It should be noted that there is indication of past declines in part of its range, high prevalence of chytrid infection in parts of its range and habitat fragmentation and loss occurring throughout its range. Therefore, it is recommended that the status of this species be monitored closely. However, threats to the species are spread across a large geographic area. In addition, the species is known from several protected areas.
2010 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from western Guatemala, through most of Honduras to central Nicaragua, from 620-2,070 m asl. It may also occur in El Salvador, although this needs verification. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 124,680 km2.

Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Surveys at Río Cafetal in Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala in 2003 suggested possible declines (Mendelson et al. 2004). However, it is still abundant at various sites where it has been sampled recently in Guatemala and there is lack of quantitative evidence for ongoing declines (C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014). Throughout its range, it occurs primarily along streams in remnant tracts of forest that are surrounded by deforested areas and land use, which has likely rendered the population severely fragmented (C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a forest species, living on low vegetation along mountain streams where it breeds, but is tolerant of some habitat disturbance. However, it does require some woody vegetation cover, such as trees along steams in pastureland.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats are habitat loss due to expanding agriculture and pasture, forest fires and water pollution. Chytridiomycosis is also a threat. Tadpoles have been found with deformed mouthparts and one was confirmed with chytridiomycosis in Río Cafetal, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala in the Sierra de las Minas, where there has been an observed dramatic population decline (although the species is still present at this site) (Mendelson et al. 2004), while an additional positive chytrid test (57.5% prevalence) was confirmed for Parque Nacional Cusuco in Honduras (Kolby et al. 2010). Although this species is widely distributed across Mesoamerica, its fragmented distribution leaves populations highly vulnerable to local extirpation (J.E. Kolby pers. comm. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, including Biotopo del Quetzal, Sierra Caral, Parque Nacional Cusuco and Parque Nacional Cerro Azul. However, given fragmentation of forests throughout its range, additional habitat protection would be important. In view of the threat of chytridiomycosis, the status of this species should be closely monitored.

Bibliography [top]

Campbell, J.A. 2001. Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Guatemala. University of Texas, Arlington, Web published:

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2014).

Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

Kolby J.E., Padgett-Flohr, G.E. and Field, R. 2010. Amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 92: 245-251.

McCranie, J.R. and Wilson, L.D. 1993. Taxonomic changes associated with the names Hyla spinipollex Schmidt and Ptychohyla merazi Wilson and McCranie (Anura: Hylidae). Southwestern Naturalist: 100-104.

McCranie, J.R. and Wilson, L.D. 2002. The Amphibians of Honduras. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Mendelson III, J.R., Brodie Jr., E.D., Malone, J.H., Acevedo, M.E., Baker, M.A., Smatresk, N.J. and Campbell, J.A. 2004. Factors associated with the catastropic decline of a cloudforest frog fauna in Guatemala. International Journal of Tropical Biology: 991-1000.

Townsend, J.H., Wilson, L.D., Talley, B.L., Fraser, D.C., Plenderleith, T.L. and Hughes, S.M. 2006. Additions to the herpetofauna of Parque Nacional El Cusuco, Honduras. Herpetological Bulletin 96: 29-39.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Ptychohyla hypomykter. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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