Pseudacris crucifer 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hylidae

Scientific Name: Pseudacris crucifer
Species Authority: (Wied-Neuwied, 1838)
Common Name(s):
English Spring Peeper
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Pelletier, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A., Sharp, D. & Hobin, L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and localities, large population size and use of a wide range of habitats.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2014 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs throughout the eastern USA and adjacent eastern Canada (east to Labrador; Bergman 1999), west to Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from southern Florida. It was formerly believed to have been introduced in Cuba (Schwartz and Henderson 1991), but it has not been found there (Powell and Henderson 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are thousands of sub-populations and millions of individuals, and the population is thought to be stable.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Typically it is found in moist wooded areas, especially near breeding pools. The species is mostly terrestrial and it hides under logs, rocks or other objects when inactive. Eggs are laid and larvae develop in small temporary or permanent waters of ponds (including those in fields with nearby forest), marshes, ditches and swamps, especially those with standing plants, sticks or other debris. Males call usually from among herbaceous vegetation adjacent to or standing in water. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Wetland drainage reduces the available habitat. Although the species does not thrive in areas of urbanization and intense agriculture, it is moderately adaptable and not considered to face any major threats on a global scale.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in many protected areas. There are no species-specific conservation actions needed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable season: breeding major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: breeding 
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: breeding 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: breeding 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable season: breeding 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable season: breeding 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Atlas des Amphibiens et des Reptiles du Québec. 2012. Available at:

Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Bergman, C.M. 1999. Range extension of spring peepers, Pseudacris crucifer, in Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist: 309-310.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Cocroft, R.B. 1994. A cladistic analysis of chorus frog phylogeny (Hylidae: Pseudacris). Herpetologica: 420-437.

Collins, J.T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles, 3rd edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles: Herpetological Circular: 1-41.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.

da Silva, H.R. 1997. Two character states new for hylines and the taxonomy of the genus Pseudacris. Journal of Herpetology: 609-613.

DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.

Delzell, D.E. 1958. Spatial movement and growth of Hyla crucifer. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Hardy, J.D., Jr. and Burroughs, R.J. 1986. Systematic status of the spring peeper, Hyla crucifer (Amphibia: Hylidae). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society: 68-89.

Hedges, S.B. 1986. An electrophoretic analysis of holarctic hylid frog evolution. Systematic Zoology: 1-21.

Highton, R. 1991. Molecular phylogeny of plethodontine salamanders and hylid frogs: statistical analysis of protein comparisons. Molecular Biology and Evolution: 796-818.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.

Karns, D.R. 1992. Effects of acidic bog habitats on amphibian reproduction in a northern Minnesota peatland. Journal of Herpetology: 401-412.

Lyken, D.V. and Forester, D.C. 1987. Age structure in the spring peeper: do males advertise longevity? Herpetologica: 216-223.

Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.

Powell, R. and Henderson, R.W. 1999. Addenda to the checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review: 137-139.

Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Pseudacris crucifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T55892A78908468. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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