|Scientific Name:||Pseudacris crucifer|
|Species Authority:||(Wied-Neuwied, 1838)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs throughout the eastern USA and adjacent southeastern Canada (east to Labrador, Bergman 1999), west to Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from southern Florida. It was formerly believed to have been introduced in Cuba (Schwartz and Henderson 1991), but it has not been found there (Powell and Henderson 1999).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are thousands of populations and millions of individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Typically it is found in moist wooded areas, especially near breeding pools. The species is mostly terrestrial and it hides under logs, rocks, or other objects when inactive. Eggs are laid and larvae develop in small temporary or permanent waters of ponds (including those in fields with nearby forest), marshes, ditches, and swamps, especially those with standing plants, sticks, or other debris. Males call usually from among herbaceous vegetation adjacent to or standing in water. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).|
|Major Threat(s):||Wetland drainage reduces the available habitat. It does not thrive in areas of urbanization and intense agriculture, but the species is moderately adaptable. However, the species does not face major threats on a global scale.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation methods needed. It occurs in many protected areas.|
Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.
Bergman, C.M. 1999. Range extension of spring peepers, Pseudacris crucifer, in Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist: 309-310.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Cocroft, R.B. 1994. A cladistic analysis of chorus frog phylogeny (Hylidae: Pseudacris). Herpetologica: 420-437.
Collins, J.T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles, 3rd edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles: Herpetological Circular: 1-41.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.
da Silva, H.R. 1997. Two character states new for hylines and the taxonomy of the genus Pseudacris. Journal of Herpetology: 609-613.
DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.
Delzell, D.E. 1958. Spatial movement and growth of Hyla crucifer. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. and Burroughs, R.J. 1986. Systematic status of the spring peeper, Hyla crucifer (Amphibia: Hylidae). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society: 68-89.
Hedges, S.B. 1986. An electrophoretic analysis of holarctic hylid frog evolution. Systematic Zoology: 1-21.
Highton, R. 1991. Molecular phylogeny of plethodontine salamanders and hylid frogs: statistical analysis of protein comparisons. Molecular Biology and Evolution: 796-818.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.
Karns, D.R. 1992. Effects of acidic bog habitats on amphibian reproduction in a northern Minnesota peatland. Journal of Herpetology: 401-412.
Lyken, D.V. and Forester, D.C. 1987. Age structure in the spring peeper: do males advertise longevity? Herpetologica: 216-223.
Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.
Powell, R. and Henderson, R.W. 1999. Addenda to the checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review: 137-139.
Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.
Vogt, R.C. 1981. Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Pseudacris crucifer. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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