Ecnomiohyla miliaria


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Ecnomiohyla miliaria
Species Authority: (Cope, 1886)
Common Name(s):
English Cope's Brown Treefrog
Hyla immensa Taylor, 1952
Hyla miliaria (Cope, 1886)
Hypsiboas miliarius Cope, 1886
Plectrohyla miliaria (Cope, 1886)
Taxonomic Notes: This species was previously included in the genus Hyla but has recently been moved to the new genus Ecnomiohyla (Faivovich et al. 2005). We follow Duellman (2001) and Savage (2002) in assigning records from Colombia and Ecuador to Ecnomiohyla phantasmagoria.

Ecnomiohyla miliaria is currently a species complex which is under revision (Brian Kubicki pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-11
Assessor(s): Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Gerardo Chaves, Jay Savage, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Brian Kubicki, Federico Bolaños
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
2008 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from humid lowlands and premontane slopes from Departamento Gracias a Dios in Honduras (McCranie et al., 2003) and south-eastern Nicaragua to south-eastern Costa Rica on the Atlantic versant (20-900m asl), and on the Pacific versant in humid premontane areas of south-western Costa Rica and western and central Panama, at 1,000-1,330m asl (Savage, 2002). It is expected to have a wider distribution than is currently known.
Costa Rica; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no information on the population status of this rarely seen, high-canopy species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a nocturnal canopy species of primary humid lowland and montane forest. Eggs are deposited in tree holes, which is also where the larvae develop. Males have been found calling from tree holes (McCranie et al., 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is loss of primary forest habitat due to agricultural expansion, logging, and human settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species has been recorded from several protected areas in both Panama and Costa Rica. Further surveys are required to fully determine the range of this species.

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. 1970. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, Kansas.

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.O., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. and Wheeler, W.C. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1-240.

Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overview of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

McCranie, J.R., Townsend, J.H. and Wilson, L.D. 2003. Hyla miliaria (Anura: Hylidae) in Honduras, with notes on calling site. Caribbean Journal of Science: 398-399.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11: 1307-1322.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wilson, L.D., McCranie, J.R. and Williams, K.L. 1985. Two new species of fringe-limbed hylid frogs from nuclear Middle America. Herpetologica: 141-150.

Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.

Citation: Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Gerardo Chaves, Jay Savage, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Brian Kubicki, Federico Bolaños 2010. Ecnomiohyla miliaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.
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