|Scientific Name:||Hyloscirtus colymba|
|Species Authority:||(Dunn, 1931)|
Boana colymba (Dunn, 1931)
Hyla alvaradoi Taylor, 1952
Hyla colymba Dunn, 1931
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species was previously within the genus Hyla but has recently been moved to the resurrected genus Hyloscirtus (Faivovich et al. 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe|
|Contributor(s):||Jaramillo, C., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Lips, K., Fuenmayor, Q. & Ibáñez, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Young, B.E. & Nowakowski , J.|
Listed as Near Threatened given that its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 16,438 km2 and there is ongoing habitat decline in its range. Recent survey efforts have consistently recorded the presence of this species in western Panama (Hertz et al. 2012), and there is no evidence of continuing population reduction. However, a past range contraction, presence of chytrid infections, and documented past declines (more than 10 years ago) suggest that this taxon should be monitored closely.
|Range Description:||This species is known from the Atlantic slopes of south-eastern Costa Rica to central Panama, from sea level to 1,116 m asl, and also from the Pacific slopes of eastern Panama (Savage 2002). The possible presence of this species in Colombia, adjacent to eastern Panama, needs to be confirmed. Its range, taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), is estimated at 16,438 km2.
Native:Costa Rica; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Little is known about the population size or abundance of this species, but it has undergone drastic declines in western Panama in the past, including Reserva Forestal Fortuna (1996-97), and at El Copé (2004); it is still present at low abundance in the Darien area (Roberto Ibáñez pers. comm. 2007). However, recent survey efforts have produced several records in Veraguas (Hertz et al. 2012). In Costa Rica, the species has not been recorded since 1984, despite some recent sampling effort in the range (F. Bolaños pers. comm. 2007, G. Chaves pers. comm. 2013).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It inhabits cloud forest or humid lowland and montane forest, where it has been found along streams. The species breeds in swift streams; eggs are deposited under rocks, and larvae cling to rocks by means of an oral disk (Savage 2002).
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
Chytrid fungus has been found in this species and has been associated with declines in western Panama (see Lips et al. 2006, Hertz et al. 2012), and a potential outbreak of chytridiomycosis could be a future threat. It is probably also impacted by the destruction of natural forests for the planting of crops, smallholder livestock ranching, logging, and residential and commercial development.
|Conservation Actions:||It is known from several protected areas in Panama, and a single park in Costa Rica (Parque Internacional La Amistad). In view of the risk of chytridiomycosis, the status of this species should be closely monitored, and ex-situ populations should be established. Research is needed on current threats and population trends.|
Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.O., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. and Wheeler, W.C. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1-240.
Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S. Carrizo, A., Ponce, M., Köhler, G. and Streit, B.. 2012. Field notes on findings of threatened amphibian species in the central mountain range of western Panama. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(2): 9-30.
Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Lips, K.R. 1999. Mass mortality and population declines of anurans at an upland site in western Panama. Conservation Biology: 117-125.
Lips, K.R., Brem, F., Brenes, R., Reeve, J.D., Alford, R.A., Voyles, J., Carey, C., Livo, L., Pessier, A.P. and Collins, J.P. 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(9): 3165-3170.
Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe 2014. Hyloscirtus colymba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2015.|
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