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Gastrotheca pseustes 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hemiphractidae

Scientific Name: Gastrotheca pseustes
Species Authority: Duellman & Hillis, 1987
Common Name(s):
English San Lucas Marsupial Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: This genus has recently been moved from the family Hylidae (Faivovich et al. 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Manuel Morales, Diego Almeida
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered because of a drastic population decline estimated to be more than 50% over the last three generations, due to chytridiomycosis.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs at elevations of 2,200-4,000m asl, in the Andes of northern and southern Ecuador, from Pichincha to Azuay Provinces.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Ecuador
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The populations in several localities (Cashca Totoras and near Parque Nacional Cajas) have disappeared. Many populations were once abundant in the mid 1980s, and these are now severely reduced. It can be easily confused with G. litonedis, which can complicate attempts to assess the population status of both species.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species can be found in old-growth cloud forest and altered zones such as secondary forest and pastures; it also can be found in páramo. The female carries the eggs in a pouch on her back and then deposits the larvae in small pools of water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Chytridiomycosis has been confirmed in this species, and this is probably the main cause of its decline. It is relatively tolerant of habitat destruction, although it requires some thickets to persist. The conversion of habitat for human settlements has severely fragmented its habitat, and aggressive afforestation programmes in páramo habitats, using exotic pines, are probably also a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its geographic range overlaps the Reserva Ecológica Antisana, Parque Nacional Cotopaxi, Parque Nacional Llanganates, the Reserva de Producción Faunística Chimborazo, Parque Nacional Sangay and Parque Nacional Cajas. Given the threat of chytrid, it may be necessary to establish a captive-breeding programme for this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.5. Other impacts
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. and Hillis, D.M. 1987. Marsupial frogs (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca) of the Ecuadorian Andes: Resolution of taxonomic problems and phylogenetic relationships. Herpetologica: 141-173.

Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.O., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. and Wheeler, W.C. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1-240.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.


Citation: Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Manuel Morales, Diego Almeida. 2004. Gastrotheca pseustes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55354A11297954. . Downloaded on 01 May 2016.
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