Duellmanohyla uranochroa 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hylidae

Scientific Name: Duellmanohyla uranochroa
Species Authority: (Cope, 1875)
Common Name(s):
English Costa Rica Brook Frog
Hyla uranochroa Cope, 1875
Hyla alleei Taylor, 1952
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-03-11
Assessor(s): NatureServe & IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Contributor(s): Kubicki, B., Jaramillo, C., Ibáñez, R., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J. & Fuenmayor, Q.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Endangered given that recent surveys have found several extant subpopulations across its historical range, with less than 250 mature individuals estimated to occur across all currently known sites.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from the cordilleras of Costa Rica and western Panama (300-1,450 m asl). In Costa Rica, the species occurs on the Atlantic versant at 656-1,740 m asl and on the Pacific slope at 880-1,600 m asl (Savage 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica; Panama
Lower elevation limit (metres): 300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1740
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It was a historically common species. As of 2002, however, the species had experienced a significant decline across its Costa Rican range. By 2007 a new subpopulation was found in Tuis de Turrialba, Costa Rica (B. Kubicki pers. comm.). By 2013, the Costa Rican subpopulations were rebounding somewhat, although the species was still not considered common in any of the known sites. Extant populations are known at Monteverde (possibly no more than 100 adults), Tuis (at most 10 adults), and Fila Matama on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca (at most 10 adults) in Costa Rica (G. Chaves pers. comm March 2013). In Panama, tadpoles and two adults were found in 2008-2009 in the Reserva Forestal La Fortuna (Hertz et al. 2012). These numbers suggest a total adult population of fewer than 150 individuals in 2013.

Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 149
Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits humid lowland and montane forest. Adults are usually found in the proximity of streams. During the day, individuals hide in vegetation, especially in leaf axils of epiphytes and terrestrial aroids. At night, moderately dense congregations have been found along small, fast-flowing streams. Males call from dense vegetation several metres away from the streams, from 0.5-3.0 m above ground. Larvae develop in quiet pools, but sometimes adhere to large rocks in the stream bottom when the streams rise following heavy rains (Savage 2002).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Museum specimens have been found to be infected with the chytrid fungus, which may have contributed to the earlier decline. Habitat loss due to smallholder farming activities is mostly a historical threat to this species (B. Young pers. comm. March 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Although there are no specific conservation measures in place, this species has been recorded from at least three protected areas in Panama, and more than three protected areas in Costa Rica. Further survey work is required to monitor the population status and trends of this species, and to ascertain clearly whether or not chytrid poses a threat.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Past, Likely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S. Carrizo, A., Ponce, M., Köhler, G. and Streit, B.. 2012. Field notes on findings of threatened amphibian species in the central mountain range of western Panama. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(2): 9-30.

Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Savage, J.M. 1968. A new red-eyed tree-frog (family Hylidae) from Costa Rica, with a review of the Hyla uranochroa group. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 67: 1-20.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.

Citation: NatureServe & IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2013. Duellmanohyla uranochroa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T55314A3028798. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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