Agalychnis annae


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Agalychnis annae
Species Authority: (Duellman, 1963)
Common Name(s):
English Blue-sided Treefrog, Orange-eyed Tree Frog
Phyllomedusa annae Duellman, 1963

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2abe ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Pounds, J., Bolaños, F. & Chaves, G.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 50% since 1990, inferred from the apparent disappearance of much of the population.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in the northern Cordillera de Talamanca, Cordillera de Tilarán and Cordillera Central, Costa Rica, at 780-1,650m. However, it has disappeared from most parts of its range, surviving mainly around San José only.
Costa Rica
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Since the late 1980s, it has disappeared from pristine areas, including in protected areas such as Parque Nacional Tapantí and the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, where it was once common. It remains common only in highly altered habitats in metropolitan San José.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a nocturnal species that lives in premontane moist and wet forests and rainforest, and tolerates disturbance to its habitat. It remains the most abundant species in San José and suburbs near heavily polluted streams, especially in shade-grown coffee plantations and gardens. It breeds in streams.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Despite the apparent adaptability of this species, it is nonetheless subject to unconfirmed factors that have caused amphibian faunas to decline in certain locations in Central America, in particular the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis. It is possible that this species survives only in polluted areas because the chytrid fungus is more susceptible to pollution than the frog. The few, known remaining populations of this species are threatened by an introduced fish (Xiphophorus hellerii) that preys on the larvae. This species is also found in the international pet trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Research is needed to determine whether or not this species can survive only in polluted areas, because of the ineffectiveness of the chytrid fungus in such environments. If this proves to be the case, then well-meaning conservation measures to abate water pollution could unintentionally lead to the extinction of this species. Given the nature of the threats, it may be worth considering the establishment of a captive-breeding programme for this species. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11: 1307-1322.

Proy, C. 1993. Beobachtungen zur Biologie und Erfahrungen bei der Erhaltung und Nachzucht von Agalychnis annae (Duellman, 1963). Herpetofauna: 27-35.

Proy, C. 2000. Unterschiedliche Temperaturverlaeufe und kuenstliche Beregnung zur Stimulierung der Paarung bei zwei Greiffroeschen (Phyllomedusa lemur and Agalychnis annae). Herpetofauna: 29-34.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Villa, J. and Townsend, D.S. 1983. Viable frog eggs eaten by phorid fly larvae. Journal of Herpetology: 278-281.

Citation: Pounds, J., Bolaños, F. & Chaves, G. 2008. Agalychnis annae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.
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