Agalychnis annae 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Phyllomedusidae

Scientific Name: Agalychnis annae (Duellman, 1963)
Common Name(s):
English Blue-sided Treefrog, Orange-eyed Tree Frog
Phyllomedusa annae Duellman, 1963
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-07-12
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A. & Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Hertz, A., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J. & Acosta Chaves, V.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Young, B.E. & Nowakowski , J.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 2,293 km2, its population is considered to be severely fragmented by urban development, and because even though the species exhibits a degree of tolerance to disturbed habitats, there is ongoing loss of essential habitat for this species’ survival, such as riparian forest and urban green spaces in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Cordillera de Tilarán and Cordillera Central, Costa Rica, at 600-1,650 m. While it is thought to have disappeared from much of its range, recent surveys suggest that the population has recovered or persisted in parts of the Central Valley. A single individual was recently recorded in western Panama, but additional survey work is needed to determine if a breeding population is present (Hertz et al. 2012). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 2,293 km2

Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):1650
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has disappeared from pristine areas since the late 1980s, including protected areas such as Parque Nacional Tapantí and the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, where it was once common. It remains common only in some areas of the Central Valley. A single individual has recently been recorded in Talamanca near the Costa Rica-Panama border (Hertz et al. 2012), but it is uncertain if this record constitutes a range expansion. Remnant subpopulations in the Central Valley are highly fragmented by urban development and are experiencing ongoing habitat loss associated with the loss of urban green spaces (Acosta 2013). For the purposes of this assessment we consider the population to be severely fragmented based on the assumption that the species’ ability to disperse is limited given its breeding biology and where it is currently found, and assuming that most of the individuals are found in fragmented habitat patches.

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a nocturnal species that is known from premontane moist and wet forests and rainforest habitats. Remnant subpopulations in the Central Valley typically occur in riparian areas near heavily polluted streams, shade-grown coffee plantations and gardens. While the species tolerates some habitat disturbance, it appears to rely on isolated green spaces within the urban landscape of the Central Valley in Costa Rica (V. Acosta pers. comm. 2013). This species typically breeds at ponds where eggs are oviposited on vegetation overhanging the water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is found in the international pet trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Despite this species' apparent tolerance to habitat degradation, it is nonetheless subject to factors that have caused amphibian fauna to decline in certain locations in Central America, in particular the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis. Remnant subpopulations in the Central Valley are highly fragmented by urban development and are experiencing ongoing habitat loss associated with the loss of urban green spaces, such as riparian vegetation, gardens and shaded coffee plantations (Acosta 2013). This species is also found in the international pet trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has disappeared from protected areas in Costa Rica where it had previously been recorded. Conservation efforts should focus on protecting urban green spaces in the Central Valley where the species is known to still occur. Monitoring of remnant subpopulations is needed to determine population trends as well as prevalence of chytrid infections. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Acosta, V. 2013. Pérdida de hábitats y biodiversidad desvanecida en la ciudad de Heredia (Costa Rica). Ambientico 232-233: 64-74.

Duellman, W.E. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Hertz, A., Lotzkat, S. Carrizo, A., Ponce, M., Köhler, G. and Streit, B.. 2012. Field notes on findings of threatened amphibian species in the central mountain range of western Panama. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(2): 9-30.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2014).

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11: 1307-1322.

Proy, C. 1993. Beobachtungen zur Biologie und Erfahrungen bei der Erhaltung und Nachzucht von Agalychnis annae (Duellman, 1963). Herpetofauna: 27-35.

Proy, C. 2000. Unterschiedliche Temperaturverlaeufe und kuenstliche Beregnung zur Stimulierung der Paarung bei zwei Greiffroeschen (Phyllomedusa lemur and Agalychnis annae). Herpetofauna: 29-34.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Villa, J. and Townsend, D.S. 1983. Viable frog eggs eaten by phorid fly larvae. Journal of Herpetology: 278-281.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe. 2014. Agalychnis annae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T55288A3027705. . Downloaded on 20 May 2018.
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