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Alytes obstetricans 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Alytidae

Scientific Name: Alytes obstetricans (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English Common Midwife Toad
Spanish Sapo Partero Común
Synonym(s):
Bufo obstetricans Laurenti, 1768

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Bosch, J., Beebee, T., Schmidt, B., Tejedo, M., Martinez Solano, I., Salvador, A., García París, M., Recuero Gil, E., Arntzen, J., Díaz-Paniagua, C. & Marquez, L.C.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from the northern half of Portugal and Spain (where populations are very fragmented, and there is a small Area of Occupancy within its Extent of Occurrence), through most of France, to southern Belgium, extreme southeastern Netherlands, Luxembourg, western and north-central Germany, and western and northern Switzerland. Populations in coastal Portugal west of Lisbon are extinct. It has been introduced to the UK, with several established populations. It occurs at elevations ranging from sea level to 2,400m asl (in the Pyrenees).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Belgium; France; Germany; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Switzerland
Introduced:
United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:it is reported to be declining (including local extinctions) across its range, but it is still widespread and common in many areas (e.g., in much of France).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It lives in terrestrial habitats, including temperate forests, semi-arid areas, walls, embankments, and slopes with small stones and sparse vegetation. Aquatic habitats in which the species breeds range from slow moving rivers to stagnant permanent ponds and pools; gravel and clay pits are also used. The larvae of this species frequently hibernate. The species can occur in suitable modified habitat such as traditional agricultural land, and even urban areas (e.g., in Barcelona).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): General habitat loss, largely to agricultural development (including loss of breeding sites), has contributed to the decline of the species in some areas. Fragmentation of populations might be a problem for the species, e.g. in Spain, Portugal and Germany. Certain populations of the subspecies Alytes obstetricans pertinax in protected areas of central Spain have severely declined and disappeared as a result of chytridiomycosis (Bosch et al., 2001; Bosch et al., 2000); a few specimens have recently been found again in this area (M. García-París and J.W. Arntzen pers. comm.). Additional mortality of the species through disease (iridovirus) has been recorded in Carris Lake, Peneda-Gerês National Park, Portugal (Soares et al., 2003); the disease might be non-native and have been transferred to the lake by an introduced North American predatory fish (Lepomis gibbosus). Mortality initially attributed to the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila "red-leg disease" has also been reported (Márquez et al. 1995). Predation by L. gibbosus and other introduced predatory fish species, such as salmonids, is also a considerable threat to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. It is listed in a number of national and sub-national Red Data Books and is protected by national legislation in many of its range states. The species is presumed to occur in a number of protected areas. Further research into the current decline is needed especially into the impacts of disease. In Central Spain there is a captive breeding programme for this species, and some reintroductions have been carried out. In the Spanish national Red List is considered Near Threatened, and subspecies pertinax is considered Vulnerable.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: Reformatted names of Assessor(s), Reviewer(s), Contributor(s), Facilitator(s) and/or Compiler(s).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Marginal  
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Unknown  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Lepomis gibbosus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.4. Problematic species/disease of unknown origin -> 8.4.2. Named species [ Aeromonas hydrophila ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.5. Viral/prion-induced diseases -> 8.5.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

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Citation: Bosch, J., Beebee, T., Schmidt, B., Tejedo, M., Martinez Solano, I., Salvador, A., García París, M., Recuero Gil, E., Arntzen, J., Díaz-Paniagua, C. & Marquez, L.C. 2009. Alytes obstetricans. (errata version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T55268A87541047. . Downloaded on 21 November 2017.
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