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Phyllobates terribilis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Dendrobatidae

Scientific Name: Phyllobates terribilis Myers, Daly and Malkin, 1978
Common Name(s):
English Golden Poison Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-04
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Mejía, D., Gómez, D., Vargas-Salinas, F., Gonzalez Duran, G.A., Bernal, M.H., Gutierrez, P., Lötters, S. & Bolívar, W.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L., NatureServe
Justification:
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,473 km2, it occurs in fewer than five threat-defined locations, there is continuous decline in the extent and quality of its habitat due to illegal crops, logging, mining activities and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Colombia. This species was previously only known from tiny areas on the Pacific coast of Colombia on the Río Saija drainage, in Cauca Department, occurring up to 200 m asl. However it is now also known from Río Naya and Boca Yurumanguí in southern Valle del Cauca Department, which has extended the known range 60 km northward (Marquez et al. 2012). It altitudinal range is between 50–400 m asl (D. Mejía pers. comm. August 2016). It occurs in fewer than five threat-defined locations and its EOO is 1,473 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1-4
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a common species. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is from rainforest, and is found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forest. The eggs are laid on the ground and the males transport the larvae to permanent pools.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This frog is present in international trade, with many surveys recording this species as imports of the pet trade e.g. between 2004-2008 in Asia (Nijman and Shepherd 2010), between 2008–2013 in the Philippines (Sy 2014). There are reports of 979 individuals traded in 2008, with most are presumed to be captively bred opposed to caught from the wild (Carpenter et al. 2014, D. Mejía pers. comm. 2016). Taking this species from the wild is prohibited by Colombian Law.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats include habitat loss due to illegal crops, logging, mining activities and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops. It is reported in international pet trade (Carpenter et al. 2014), although the proportion caught from the wild is unknown but likely to be small.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is recorded in a very small protected area called Reserva Rana Terribilis. Decree INDERENA No. 39 of 9 July 1985 forbids the collection of species of this genus from the wild in Colombia, for breeding (or other) purposes. It is listed on CITES Appendix II. 

Conservation Needed
Further protection of part of its range is needed. 

Research Needed
Research in population trends, ecology, threats and distribution are recommended for the species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Carpenter, A.I., Andreone, F., Moore, R.D. and Griffiths, R.A. 2014. A review of the international trade in amphibians: the types, levels and dynamics of trade in CITES-listed species. Oryx 48(4): 565-574.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Lötters, S., Castro Herrera, F., Köhler, J. and Richter, R. 1997. Notes on the distribution and color variation of poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from western Colombia (Anura, Dendrobatidae). Revue Francaise d'Aquariologie 24: 55-58.

Màrquez, R., Corredor, G., Galvis, C., Góez, D. and Amézquita, A. 2012. Range extension of the critically endangered true poison-dart frog, Phyllobates terribilis (Anura: Dendrobatidae), in western Colombia. Acta Herpetologica 7(2): 341-345.

Myers, C.W., Daly, J.W. and Malkin, B. 1978. A dangerously toxic new frog (Phyllobates) used by Embera Indians of western Colombia with discussion of blowgun fabrication and dart poisoning. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 161(2): 307-366.

Nijman, V. and Shepherd, C.R. 2010. The role of Asia in the global trade in CITES II-listed poison arrow frogs: hopping from Kazakhstan to Lebanon to Thailand and beyond. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7): 1963-1970.

Rueda-Almonacid, J.V. 1999. Anfibios y Reptiles amenazados de extinción en Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales 23(Special Suppl.): 475-497.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.

Sy, E.Y. 2014. Checklist of exotic species in the Philippine pet trade, I. Amphibians. Journal of Nature Studies 13: 48-57.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Phyllobates terribilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T55264A85887889. . Downloaded on 14 December 2017.
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