Mannophryne herminae 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Aromobatidae

Scientific Name: Mannophryne herminae (Boettger, 1893)
Common Name(s):
Spanish Sapito Acollarado Orocostense
Taxonomic Notes: This form is a complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Enrique La Marca, Jesús Manzanilla
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Near Threatened since although its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2 and its habitat is declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable, it occurs in more than ten locations, and its range is probably not severely fragmented.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the mountains of the Venezuelan coastal range, from 30-1,610m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is very common.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is diurnal, and lives on the ground and along streams in semi-deciduous forest. Adults carry larvae on their backs to streams, where metamorphosis is completed.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Fires are a major threat, as are agricultural encroachment and human settlement, although it appears not to be significantly threatened by pollution from domestic wastewater. Chytridiomycosis might be a potential future threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its range includes Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (Rancho Grande) and Parque Nacional San Esteban where it is a common species. Further work is required to resolve the taxonomy of this species. This species should be monitored carefully, given the potential future threat of chytridiomycosis.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Alemán, C. 1952. Apuntes sobre reptiles y anfibios de la región Baruta- El Hatillo. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle: 11-30.

Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America 9(3): 1-48.

Gines, H. 1959. Familias y géneros de anfibios - Amphibia de Venezuela. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle: 85-146.

Hellmich, W. 1940. Contribución al conocimiento de la fauna venezolana. Boletín da Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturais: 318-327.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

La Marca, E. 1994. Taxonomy of the frogs of the genus Mannophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae). Publicaciones de la Asociacion Amigos de Doñana: 1-75.

La Marca, E. 1995. Biological and systematic synopsis of a genus of frogs from Northern mountains of South America (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society: 40-77.

La Marca, E. 1995. Crisis de biodiversidad en anfibios de Venezuela: estudio de casos. In: Alonso-Amelot, M.E. (ed.), La Biodiversidad Neotropical y la Amenaza de las Extinciones, pp. 47-69. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida.

La Marca, E. 1997. Lista actualizada de los anfibios de Venezuela. In: E. La Marca (ed.), Vertebrados Actuales y Fosiles de Venezuela, pp. 103-120. Museo de Ciencias y Tecnología de Mérida, Mérida.

Manzanilla, J. 2001. Clave ilustrada y descripción de los anfibios del noroeste del Estado Aragua, con comentarios sobre su historia natural. Trabajo de Ascenso. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay.

Manzanilla, J., García-París, M. and La Marca, E. 2002. Filogenia molecular del Género Mannophryne. VII Congreso Luso-Español de Herpetología, Evora, pp. 61. Portugal.

Manzanilla, J., La Marca, E. and García-París, M. 2003. Evidencias moleculares de la monofilia del género Mannophryne (Anura: Dendrobatidae). VI Congreso Latinoamericano de Herpetología, Enero 2003, Lima , Perú.

Myers, C.W., Paolillo, A. and Daly, J.W. 1991. Discovery of a defensively malodorous and nocturnal frog in the family Dendrobatidae: phylogenetic significance of a new genus and species from the Venezuelan Andes. American Museum Novitates: 1-33.

Rivero, J.A. 1961. Salienta of Venezuela. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology: 1-207.

Sexton, O.J. 1960. Some aspects of the behavior and the terrritory of a dendrobatid frog Prostherapis trinitatis. Ecology: 107-115.

Test, F.H. 1962. The highly developed courtship of the frog Prostherapis trinitatis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan: 1-9.

Test, F.H., Sexton, O.J. and Heatwole, H. 1966. Reptiles of Rancho Grande and Vicinity, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan: 1-63.

Citation: Enrique La Marca, Jesús Manzanilla. 2004. Mannophryne herminae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55244A11279872. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
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