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Epipedobates machalilla 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Dendrobatidae

Scientific Name: Epipedobates machalilla
Species Authority: (Coloma, 1995)
Common Name(s):
Spanish Rana Nodriza De Machalilla
Synonym(s):
Colostethus machalilla Coloma, 1995
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Ana Almendáriz
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from more than ten localities in the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador in the provinces of El Oro, Los Ríos, Bolívar, Guayas, Azogues, and Manabí, from 10-515m asl (Parker and Carr 1992; Coloma 1995).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Ecuador
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is not an uncommon species.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits tropical thicket and thorny scrub and very dry tropical forest (Coloma 1995). It lays its eggs on land, and the larvae are then carried to water by the adults where they develop further.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to the species are agriculture, involving cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock, and logging.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its geographic range overlaps with Parque Nacional Machalilla and the Reserva Ecológica Manglares Churute. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Benitez, M.S. and del Pino, E.M. 2003. La expresion de Brachyury en ranas con modos divergentes de desarrollo. The expression of Brachyury in frogs with different modes of development. Revista de la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador: 7-14.

Coloma, L.A. 1995. Ecuadorian frogs of the genus Colostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae). University of Kansas Natural History Museum Miscellaneous Publication 87: 1-72.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Parker III, T.A. and Carr, J.L. 1992. Status of forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador. RAP Working Papers: 1-172.


Citation: Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Ana Almendáriz. 2004. Epipedobates machalilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55107A11251124. . Downloaded on 30 June 2016.
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