Centrolene heloderma 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Centrolenidae

Scientific Name: Centrolene heloderma
Species Authority: (Duellman, 1981)
Common Name(s):
English Pichincha Giant Glass Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2ac ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Taran Grant, Wilmar Bolívar
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population.
Date last seen: 1996

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on the western versant of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia in Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Risaralda Departments, south to the Tandayapa and Saloya Valleys, in Pichincha Province, Ecuador (where it has been recorded from four localities). Its altitudinal range is 1,900-2,400m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Colombia; Ecuador
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has disappeared from all known localities in Ecuador, the most recent record dating back to March 1979, although they might occur elsewhere in this country. In Colombia, it is very rare, and was last recorded in 1996. Overall, it appears to have undergone a serious decline.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits the upper elevations of cloud forest, surviving only in mature forest. It breeds in streams, with the eggs laid on leaves overhanging the water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The most likely cause of the severe decline of this species is the movement of the cloud layer up the mountain sides as a result of climate change, resulting in reduced humidity within the altitudinal range of the species (probably exacerbated by habitat fragmentation). Additional likely threats include: deforestation for agricultural development (including illegal crops), fire, logging, and human settlement; introduction of alien predatory fish species in streams; and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops. Chytridiomycosis also cannot be ruled out.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species probably has been recorded in several protected areas in Colombia, but is not recorded from any in Ecuador. Surveys are urgently needed to determine whether or not this species still survives, and, if necessary, an ex-situ captive population should be established.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Duellman, W.E. 1981. Three new species of centrolenid frogs from the Pacific versant of Ecuador and Colombia. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas: 1-9.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M. and Lynch, J.D. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de una nueva clasificación genérica. Lozania (Acta Zoológica colombiana): 1-30.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.


Citation: Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Taran Grant, Wilmar Bolívar. 2004. Centrolene heloderma. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54916A11223156. . Downloaded on 25 May 2016.
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