|Scientific Name:||Rhinella macrorhina (Trueb, 1971)|
Rhamphophryne macrorhina Trueb, 1971
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Molina, C., Cano, E., Lynch, J. & Bolívar, W.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hobin, L., NatureServe|
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, it occurs in seven threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat due to agricultural activities and timber extraction.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species was previously known from its type locality of Santa Rita, in Antioquia Department, Colombia, between 1,890–1910 m asl, and two other localities in Colombia: Guatapé (Mesopotamia) and Amalfi (Anorí) all in Antioquia Department, in the central Andes, between 1,800–1,900 m asl. It is now also known from La Forzosa and Chaquiral forest in Anorí muncipality, and Costa Rica and Los Canales forest in Amalfi municipality, between 1,800–1,980 m asl (Galeano and Urbina 2004). There is no suitable habitat available to the species between these known localities. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, and it occurs in seven threat-defined locations.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It appears to be a common species in parts of its range. There are recent records from several localities, with the most recent from 2016 from Carmen del Viboral and Sonson.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in the leaf-litter of sub-Andean and Andean forests, and is restricted to primary and good secondary forest. It most likely breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat fragmentation and loss due to the expansion of agriculture and timber extraction are the major threats to the species' habitat. Climate change may also be a threat, given that this species occurs at relatively high elevations.|
The species has been recorded in Reserva La Forzosa.
Research is needed to better determine its population size and trends and the impact of the current threats on its population.
Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 1(3): 289-319.
Galeano, S.P. and Urbina, J.C. 2004. Geographic distribution: Rhamphophryne macrorhina. Herpetological Review 35: 283-284.
Grant, T. 1998. Análisis filogenético de un grupo de sapos neotropicales (Anura: Bufonidae): Una crítica del status quo. Universidad del Valle - Departamento de Biología.
Grant, T. 1999. Una nueva especie de Rhamphophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Revista Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 287-299.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new Genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science 216: 1-40.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Rhinella macrorhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54878A85882082.Downloaded on 23 February 2018.|
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