Rhinella macrorhina


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Rhinella macrorhina
Species Authority: (Trueb, 1971)
Rhamphophryne macrorhina Trueb, 1971

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor(s): Wilmar Bolívar, John Lynch
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Endangered, in view of its Extent of Occurrence of less than 5,000km2 and Area of Occupancy of less than 500km2, with all individuals in only three locations, and a continuing decline in the quality of its habitat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from the type locality: Santa Rita, in Antioquia Department, Colombia, between 1,890 and 1910m asl. It is also known from two other locations in Colombia: Guatape (Mesopotamia) and Amalfi (Anori) all in Antioquia Department, in the central Andes, between 1,800 and 1,900m asl. There is no suitable habitat available to the species between these known localities.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a common species.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in the leaf-litter of sub-Andean and Andean forests, and is restricted to primary and good secondary forest. It most likely breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat fragmentation and loss, due to the expansion of agriculture, timber extraction, desiccation, and the fumigation of illegal crops, are all major threats to the species' habitat. Climate change may also be a threat, given that this species occurs at relatively high elevations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of the species includes the Reserva La Forzosa, but other tracts of montane forest remain in urgent need of formal protection.

Bibliography [top]

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana: 289-319.

Grant, T. 1998. Análisis filogenético de un grupo de sapos neotropicales (Anura: Bufonidae): Una crítica del status quo. Universidad del Valle - Departamento de Biología.

Grant, T. 1999. Una nueva especie de Rhamphophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Revista Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 287-299.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new Genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science: 1-40.

Citation: Wilmar Bolívar, John Lynch 2004. Rhinella macrorhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.
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