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Rhinella macrorhina 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella macrorhina (Trueb, 1971)
Common Name(s):
English Santa Rita Beaked Toad, Billed Toad, Trumpeted Toad
Synonym(s):
Rhamphophryne macrorhina Trueb, 1971
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-01
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Neam, K.
Contributor(s): Molina, C., Cano, E., Lynch, J. & Bolívar, W.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L., NatureServe
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, it occurs in seven threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat due to agricultural activities and timber extraction.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species was previously known from its type locality of Santa Rita, in Antioquia Department, Colombia, between 1,890–1910 m asl, and two other localities in Colombia: Guatapé (Mesopotamia) and Amalfi (Anorí) all in Antioquia Department, in the central Andes, between 1,800–1,900 m asl. It is now also known from La Forzosa and Chaquiral forest in Anorí muncipality, and Costa Rica and Los Canales forest in Amalfi municipality, between 1,800–1,980 m asl (Galeano and Urbina 2004). There is no suitable habitat available to the species between these known localities. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, and it occurs in seven threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia
Additional data:
Number of Locations:7
Lower elevation limit (metres):1800
Upper elevation limit (metres):1980
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It appears to be a common species in parts of its range. There are recent records from several localities, with the most recent from 2016 from Carmen del Viboral and Sonson.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in the leaf-litter of sub-Andean and Andean forests, and is restricted to primary and good secondary forest. It most likely breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat fragmentation and loss due to the expansion of agriculture and timber extraction are the major threats to the species' habitat. Climate change may also be a threat, given that this species occurs at relatively high elevations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
The species has been recorded in Reserva La Forzosa. 

Research Needed
Research is needed to better determine its population size and trends and the impact of the current threats on its population.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Unknown    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 1(3): 289-319.

Galeano, S.P. and Urbina, J.C. 2004. Geographic distribution: Rhamphophryne macrorhina. Herpetological Review 35: 283-284.

Grant, T. 1998. Análisis filogenético de un grupo de sapos neotropicales (Anura: Bufonidae): Una crítica del status quo. Universidad del Valle - Departamento de Biología.

Grant, T. 1999. Una nueva especie de Rhamphophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Revista Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 287-299.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new Genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science 216: 1-40.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Rhinella macrorhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54878A85882082. . Downloaded on 23 April 2018.
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