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Rhinella macrorhina 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella macrorhina
Species Authority: (Trueb, 1971)
Synonym(s):
Rhamphophryne macrorhina Trueb, 1971

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Wilmar Bolívar, John Lynch
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered, in view of its Extent of Occurrence of less than 5,000km2 and Area of Occupancy of less than 500km2, with all individuals in only three locations, and a continuing decline in the quality of its habitat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from the type locality: Santa Rita, in Antioquia Department, Colombia, between 1,890 and 1910m asl. It is also known from two other locations in Colombia: Guatape (Mesopotamia) and Amalfi (Anori) all in Antioquia Department, in the central Andes, between 1,800 and 1,900m asl. There is no suitable habitat available to the species between these known localities.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a common species.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in the leaf-litter of sub-Andean and Andean forests, and is restricted to primary and good secondary forest. It most likely breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat fragmentation and loss, due to the expansion of agriculture, timber extraction, desiccation, and the fumigation of illegal crops, are all major threats to the species' habitat. Climate change may also be a threat, given that this species occurs at relatively high elevations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of the species includes the Reserva La Forzosa, but other tracts of montane forest remain in urgent need of formal protection.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana: 289-319.

Grant, T. 1998. Análisis filogenético de un grupo de sapos neotropicales (Anura: Bufonidae): Una crítica del status quo. Universidad del Valle - Departamento de Biología.

Grant, T. 1999. Una nueva especie de Rhamphophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Revista Academia Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 287-299.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new Genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science: 1-40.


Citation: Wilmar Bolívar, John Lynch. 2004. Rhinella macrorhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54878A11206394. . Downloaded on 30 June 2016.
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