Pedostibes rugosus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Pedostibes rugosus
Species Authority: Inger, 1958
Common Name(s):
English Marbled Tree Toad, Inger's Asian Tree Toad
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Near Threatened since although this species is still relatively widely distributed, it depends on streams in areas of closed forest habitat, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining very rapidly due to widespread forest loss within its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the forests of northern Borneo in Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Brunei Darussalam. It is likely to occur more widely than currently recorded. It is generally a lowland species occurring between 150 and 1,050m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population status of this species is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It has been recorded from hilly lowland, and submontane, tropical primary moist forest. It is an arboreal species that breeds in small, clear, rocky streams. It might possibly occur in areas that have previously been used for shifting cultivation, but it cannot adapt to significantly modified habitats.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is habitat loss and fragmentation due to deforestation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is present in a number of protected areas including Batu Apoi (Brunei), and Lanjak Anteroi and the Crocker Range (both in Sabah). The protection of lowland forests in Sabah and parts of Sarawak now provide stable habitat for this species, but expansion of this protection to hilly lowland forests in Kalimantan is needed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Inger, R.F. and Stuebing, R.B. 1997. A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo. Borneo Natural History Publishers, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Citation: Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun. 2004. Pedostibes rugosus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54864A11217097. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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