Nectophrynoides vestergaardi


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Nectophrynoides vestergaardi
Species Authority: Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004
Common Name(s):
English Vestergaard's Forest Toad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-12-12
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Msuya, C.A., Menegon, M. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is limited to 1,004 km², with an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 225 km², it is known from three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania, where it has been recorded in the Shume-Magamba Forest Reserve, the Mazumbai Forest Reserve, and the Ambangulu Tea Estate between 1,230 and 2,000 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,004 km², with an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 225 km², which relates to the area of the forest fragments. It is understood to occur in three threat-defined locations.
Tanzania, United Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species can be relatively common at specific sites within its range. However, its population is severely fragmented as more than 50% occurs in fragments on different sides of the mountain between which there is little to no dispersal and, due to ongoing habitat loss, its population is presumed to be decreasing.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: All records are from montane forest, including in the ecotone between forest and ericaceous vegetation. It is a terrestrial species and its breeding strategy is unknown, but it is assumed to be ovoviviparous like other members of its genus, with internal fertilization giving birth to tiny toadlets.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is a long history of habitat modification in the West Usambaras, initiated by the planting of tea and coffee plantations. Agricultural activities continue to the present day in addition to wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in the Mazumbai, Baga II, Shume-Magamba Forest Reserves in the West Usambara Mountains. All of these forest reserves require further protection and additional habitat protection outside these areas is also needed. The effects of habitat disturbance on this species need to be investigated, as well as its natural history. This species is listed under CITES Appendix 1.

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Loader, S.P. 2004. Five new species of Nectophrynoides Noble 1926 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Tropical Zoology: 97-121.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Nectophrynoides vestergaardi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.
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