Incilius tutelarius 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius tutelarius
Species Authority: (Mendelson, 1997)
Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Manuel Acevedo, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Antonio Muñoz Alonso
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs on the Pacific versant of Mexico from the Chimalapas region in south-eastern Oaxaca south through Chiapas to extreme western Guatemala, at elevations of 1,000-2,000m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Guatemala; Mexico
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is uncommon but still present in one Oaxaca locality, with no evidence of a decline. In Chiapas, it has declined and is now rare, though it still persists. Apparently, it is rare in Guatemala, as recent expeditions within its range have not recorded this species, indicating a decline there also.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is closely associated with streams, which provide breeding habitat, in cloud forest; it also occurs in pine-oak (broadleaf) forest, and does tolerate moderate forest disturbance.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species has been the loss and fragmentation of suitable forest habitat as a result of livestock ranching and agricultural activities, and wood extraction. Since this is a montane, stream-breeding bufonid, it is possible that it may be affected by chytridiomycosis.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in Reserva de la Biósfera La Sepultura and Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo, but further protection of the remaining habitat in the range of this species is needed. In view of the severe risk of chytridiomycosis, the status of this species should be closely monitored and ex-situ populations should be established if chytrid is shown to be a threat.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Campbell, J.A. 2001. Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Guatemala. University of Texas, Arlington, Web published:

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Mendelson III, J.R. 1997. A new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Pacific highlands of Guatemala and southern Mexico, with comments on the status of Bufo valliceps macrocristatus. Herpetologica: 14-30.

Mendelson, J.R., III, Ustach, P.C. and Montes de-Oca, A.N. 1999. Description of the tadpole of Bufo tutelarius, natural history notes on the Bufo valliceps group, and a key to the tadpoles of the group. Journal of Herpetology: 324-328.

Citation: Manuel Acevedo, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Antonio Muñoz Alonso. 2004. Incilius tutelarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54785A11190498. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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