|Scientific Name:||Duttaphrynus melanostictus|
|Species Authority:||(Schneider, 1799)|
Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937
|Taxonomic Notes:||This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.|
Native:Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Bali - Introduced, Irian Jaya - Introduced, Jawa, Kalimantan, Maluku - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
Introduced:Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.|
|Conservation Actions:||None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.|
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|Citation:||Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|