Duttaphrynus melanostictus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Species Authority: (Schneider, 1799)
Common Name(s):
English Asian Common Toad, Asian Toad, Black-spectacled Toad, Common Sunda Toad, Javanese Toad
Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Bali - Introduced, Jawa, Kalimantan, Maluku - Introduced, Papua - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
Papua New Guinea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.
Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Ao, J.M., Bordoloi, S. and Ohler, A. 2003. Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the State including five new records for India. ZOO's Print Journal 18(6): 1117-1125.

Asmat, G.S.M., Banu, Md., Q., Islam, Md., A., Ahsan, F. and Chakma, S. 2003. Amphibian fauna from Chittagong and Chittagong Hill-tracts, Bangladesh. University Journal of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh: 141-143.

Berry, P.Y. 1975. The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Bordoloi, S., Borah, M.M., Sarmah, P.K. and Sharma, J. 2002. Amphibian and insect fauna of amphibian habitats of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Himalayan Biosphere Reserves: 33-38.

Chanda, S.K. 2002. Handbook - Indian Amphibians. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

Dubois, A. and Ohler, A. 1999. Asian and Oriental toads of the Bufo melanostictus, Bufo scaber and Bufo stejnegeri groups (Amphibia, Anura): a list of available and valid names and description of some name bearing types. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 133-180.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.

Husain, K.Z. and Rahman, M.M. 1978. The Amphibian Fauna of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology: 157-158.

Iskandar, D.T. and Setyantyo, D.Y. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of Anai Valley, West Sumatra. Annual Report of the Field Biology and Training Project: 74-91.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Khan, M.S. 1972. The "commonest toad" of West Pakistan and a note on Bufo melanostictus schneider. Biologia: 131-133.

Khan, M.S. 1976. An annotated checklist and key to the amphibians of Pakistan. Biologia: 201-210.

Khan, M.S. 1979. On a collection of amphibians from northern Punjab and Azad Kashmir, with ecological notes. Biologia: 37-50.

Khan, M.S. 1994. A revised checklist and key to the amphibians of Pakistan. Hamadryad: 11-14.

Khan, M.S. 1996. Status of amphibian fauna of Pakistan. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biology and Conservation of the Amphibians and Reptiles and their habitat in South Asia, Sri Lanka, August 1-5, 1996.

Khan, M.S. 2001. Notes on cranial-ridged toads of Pakistan and description of a new subspecies (Amphibia: Bufonidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology: 293-298.

Khan, M.S. 2002. A checklist and key to the Amphibia of Pakistan. Bulletin Chicago Herpetological Society: 158-163.

Khan, M.S. and Tasnim, R. 1987. A field guide to the identification of herps of Pakistan. Part I: Amphibia. Monograph No. 14, pp. 1-27. Biological Society of Pakistan, Lahore.

Kirtisinghe, P. 1957. The Amphibia of Ceylon. Published by Author, Colombo.

Leong, T.M., Grismer, L. and Mumpuni. 2002. Preliminary checklists of the herpetofauna of the Anambas and Natuna Islands (South China Sea). Hamadryad: 165-174.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, R. 1998. A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 213-246.

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Citation: Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan. 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54707A11188511. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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