Duttaphrynus melanostictus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Species Authority: (Schneider, 1799)
Common Name(s):
English Asian Common Toad, Asian Toad, Black-spectacled Toad, Common Sunda Toad, Javanese Toad
Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937
Taxonomic Notes: This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Bali - Introduced, Jawa, Kalimantan, Maluku - Introduced, Papua - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
Papua New Guinea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.

Bibliography [top]

Ao, J.M., Bordoloi, S. and Ohler, A. 2003. Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the State including five new records for India. ZOO's Print Journal 18(6): 1117-1125.

Asmat, G.S.M., Banu, Md., Q., Islam, Md., A., Ahsan, F. and Chakma, S. 2003. Amphibian fauna from Chittagong and Chittagong Hill-tracts, Bangladesh. University Journal of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh: 141-143.

Berry, P.Y. 1975. The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Bordoloi, S., Borah, M.M., Sarmah, P.K. and Sharma, J. 2002. Amphibian and insect fauna of amphibian habitats of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Himalayan Biosphere Reserves: 33-38.

Chanda, S.K. 2002. Handbook - Indian Amphibians. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

Dubois, A. and Ohler, A. 1999. Asian and Oriental toads of the Bufo melanostictus, Bufo scaber and Bufo stejnegeri groups (Amphibia, Anura): a list of available and valid names and description of some name bearing types. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 133-180.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.

Husain, K.Z. and Rahman, M.M. 1978. The Amphibian Fauna of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology: 157-158.

Iskandar, D.T. and Setyantyo, D.Y. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of Anai Valley, West Sumatra. Annual Report of the Field Biology and Training Project: 74-91.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Khan, M.S. 1972. The "commonest toad" of West Pakistan and a note on Bufo melanostictus schneider. Biologia: 131-133.

Khan, M.S. 1976. An annotated checklist and key to the amphibians of Pakistan. Biologia: 201-210.

Khan, M.S. 1979. On a collection of amphibians from northern Punjab and Azad Kashmir, with ecological notes. Biologia: 37-50.

Khan, M.S. 1994. A revised checklist and key to the amphibians of Pakistan. Hamadryad: 11-14.

Khan, M.S. 1996. Status of amphibian fauna of Pakistan. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biology and Conservation of the Amphibians and Reptiles and their habitat in South Asia, Sri Lanka, August 1-5, 1996.

Khan, M.S. 2001. Notes on cranial-ridged toads of Pakistan and description of a new subspecies (Amphibia: Bufonidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology: 293-298.

Khan, M.S. 2002. A checklist and key to the Amphibia of Pakistan. Bulletin Chicago Herpetological Society: 158-163.

Khan, M.S. and Tasnim, R. 1987. A field guide to the identification of herps of Pakistan. Part I: Amphibia. Monograph No. 14, pp. 1-27. Biological Society of Pakistan, Lahore.

Kirtisinghe, P. 1957. The Amphibia of Ceylon. Published by Author, Colombo.

Leong, T.M., Grismer, L. and Mumpuni. 2002. Preliminary checklists of the herpetofauna of the Anambas and Natuna Islands (South China Sea). Hamadryad: 165-174.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, R. 1998. A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 213-246.

Menzies, J.I. and Tapilatu, R. 2000. The introduction of a second species of toad (Amphibia: Bufonidae) into New Guinea. Science in New Guinea: 70-73.

Taylor, E.H. 1962. The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin: 267-599.

The Comprehensive Scientific Expedition to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Hengduan Mountains. Science Press, Beijing.

Ye, C.-Y, Fei, L. and Hu, S.Q. 1993. Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.

Citation: Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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