|Scientific Name:||Duttaphrynus melanostictus|
|Species Authority:||(Schneider, 1799)|
Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||van Dijk, P.P., Iskandar, D., Lau, M.W.N., Huiqing, G., Baorong, G., Kuangyang, L., Wenhao, C., Zhigang, Y., Chan, B., Dutta, S., Inger, R.F., Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & Khan, M.S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800 m asl.|
Native:Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Bali - Introduced, Jawa, Kalimantan, Maluku - Introduced, Papua - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
Introduced:Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.|
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.|
|Conservation Actions:||None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.|
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Dubois, A. and Ohler, A. 1999. Asian and Oriental toads of the Bufo melanostictus, Bufo scaber and Bufo stejnegeri groups (Amphibia, Anura): a list of available and valid names and description of some name bearing types. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 133-180.
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Khan, M.S. and Tasnim, R. 1987. A field guide to the identification of herps of Pakistan. Part I: Amphibia. Monograph No. 14, pp. 1-27. Biological Society of Pakistan, Lahore.
Kirtisinghe, P. 1957. The Amphibia of Ceylon. Published by Author, Colombo.
Leong, T.M., Grismer, L. and Mumpuni. 2002. Preliminary checklists of the herpetofauna of the Anambas and Natuna Islands (South China Sea). Hamadryad: 165-174.
Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, R. 1998. A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History: 213-246.
Menzies, J.I. and Tapilatu, R. 2000. The introduction of a second species of toad (Amphibia: Bufonidae) into New Guinea. Science in New Guinea: 70-73.
Taylor, E.H. 1962. The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin: 267-599.
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|Citation:||van Dijk, P.P., Iskandar, D., Lau, M.W.N., Huiqing, G., Baorong, G., Kuangyang, L., Wenhao, C., Zhigang, Y., Chan, B., Dutta, S., Inger, R.F., Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & Khan, M.S. 2016. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54707A86445591.Downloaded on 24 October 2016.|
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