Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius ibarrai
Species Authority: (Stuart, 1954)
Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Manuel Acevedo, Bruce Young
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Guatemala.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs at moderate and intermediate elevations of central and southern Guatemala and the Sierra de las Minas, eastern Guatemala, from 1,360-1,980m asl. Its range has also recently been extended into contiguous regions of Honduras in the western ranges of the Southern Cordillera Region in the departments of Intibuca, Lemipira and Ocotepeque, up to 2,020m asl (Mendelson et al. 2005). However, McCranie and Wilson (2002) refer all Honduran material to Bufo coccifer.
Countries occurrence:
Guatemala; Honduras
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species persists in small numbers in appropriate habitat. Nearly continuous field work throughout the range of this species in Guatemala between 1989 and 1998 produced less than 10 observations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in pine-oak or premontane or lower montane moist forest, and breeds in ponds, marshes and wet meadows. Males have been observed calling from the banks of ponds.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its range is severely fragmented due to habitat loss, primarily due to agricultural activities. Formerly robust populations in Guatemala are now extirpated following severe alteration of montane wetlands and cloud forests, and may well have succumbed to the effects of chytrid, which has been documented in other anuran species in the same area (Mendelson et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A portion of the range previously occurred in the Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de las Minas in Guatemala, but it has now been extirpated from this region. Protection of the remaining habitat of this species is urgently required. Given the threat of chytrid, this species requires close population monitoring.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Campbell, J.A. 2001. Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Guatemala. University of Texas, Arlington, Web published:

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

McCranie, J.R. and Wilson, L.D. 2002. The Amphibians of Honduras. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Mendelson III, J.R. 2001. A review of the Guatemalan toad Bufo ibarrai (Anura: Bufonidae), with distributional and taxonomic comments of Bufo valliceps and Bufo coccifer. In: Johnson, J.D., Webb, R.G. and Flores-Villela, O. (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Natural History, and Conservation, pp. 10-19. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Mendelson III, J.R., Brodie Jr., E.D., Malone, J.H., Acevedo, M.E., Baker, M.A., Smatresk, N.J. and Campbell, J.A. 2004. Factors associated with the catastropic decline of a cloudforest frog fauna in Guatemala. International Journal of Tropical Biology: 991-1000.

Mendelson III, J.R., Williams, B.L., Sheil, C.A. and Mulcahy, D.G. 2005. Systematics of the Bufo coccifer complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of Mesoamerica. Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas: 1-27.

Citation: Manuel Acevedo, Bruce Young. 2004. Incilius ibarrai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54667A11183794. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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