|Scientific Name:||Anaxyrus fowleri|
|Species Authority:||(Hinckley, 1882)|
Bufo fowleri Hinckley, 1882
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species range occurs throughout most of eastern USA and northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from northern New England and Florida peninsula.|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is widespread, generally common and relatively stable, with local declines.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It can be found in wooded areas, river valleys and floodplains, agricultural areas, usually in areas with deep friable soils. It burrows underground or hides under rocks, plants, or other cover when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in shallow water of marshes, rain pools, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, flooded areas, and other bodies of water lacking a strong current.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is not threatened range wide.|
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are needed.|
Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Breden, F. 1988. Natural history and ecology of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Amphibia: Bufonidae), in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Fieldiana Zoology New Series: 1-16.
Clarke, R.D. 1974. Activity and movement patterns in a population of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhouseii fowleri. American Midland Naturalist: 257-274.
Collins, J.T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second Edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8, Kansas.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.
Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Green, D.M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia: 18-26.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.
Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Sanders, O. 1986. The heritage of Bufo woodhousei Girard in Texas. Baylor Univ., Occas. Pap. Strecker Mus. No. 1.
Sanders, O. 1987. Evolutionary hybridization and speciation in North American indigenous bufonids. Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.
Species at Risk Branch. 2002. Species at Risk Range Maps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. (http://www.sis.ec.gc.ca/download_e.htm), Ottawa.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Stille, W.T. 1952. The nocturnal amphibian fauna of the southern Lake Michigan beach. Ecology: 149-162.
Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 1988. Hybridization between the toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona: variation in release calls and allozymes. Herpetologica: 325-333.
Sullivan, B.K., Malmos, K.B. and Given, M.F. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia: 274-280.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Anaxyrus fowleri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|
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