Anaxyrus fowleri 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus fowleri
Species Authority: (Hinckley, 1882)
Common Name(s):
English Fowler's Toad
Bufo fowleri Hinckley, 1882
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Green, C., Sharp, D. & Garcia Moreno, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and localities, large population size and use of a wide range of habitats.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species' range includes most of eastern USA and the northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from northern New England and the Florida peninsula.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Ontario); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is widespread, generally common and relatively stable, with local declines.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It can be found in wooded areas, river valleys, floodplains and agricultural areas, usually in areas with deep friable soils. It burrows underground or hides under rocks, plants, or other cover when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in shallow water in marshes, rain pools, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, flooded areas, and other bodies of water lacking a strong current.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Generally, there are no major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species occurs in many protected areas in the United States. The majority of Fowler’s Toad habitat in the Rondeau Provincial Park and Long Point areas is located within a Provincial Park or National Wildlife Area where there is no direct threat from industrial or urban development (COSEWIC 2010). No conservation measures are needed. 

Research Needed
Research is needed for population size and trends.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Suitable season: resident 

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Breden, F. 1988. Natural history and ecology of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Amphibia: Bufonidae), in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Fieldiana Zoology New Series: 1-16.

Clarke, R.D. 1974. Activity and movement patterns in a population of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhouseii fowleri. American Midland Naturalist: 257-274.

Collins, J.T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second Edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8, Kansas.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Fowler’s Toad Anaxyrus fowleri in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

DeGraaf, R.M. and Rudis, D.D. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of New England: Habitats and Natural History. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, USA.

Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Green, D.M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia: 18-26.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 6, Kansas.

Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Sanders, O. 1986. The heritage of Bufo woodhousei Girard in Texas. Baylor Univ., Occas. Pap. Strecker Mus. No. 1.

Sanders, O. 1987. Evolutionary hybridization and speciation in North American indigenous bufonids. Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.

Species at Risk Branch. 2002. Species at Risk Range Maps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. (, Ottawa.

Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stille, W.T. 1952. The nocturnal amphibian fauna of the southern Lake Michigan beach. Ecology: 149-162.

Sullivan, B.K. and Lamb, T. 1988. Hybridization between the toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona: variation in release calls and allozymes. Herpetologica: 325-333.

Sullivan, B.K., Malmos, K.B. and Given, M.F. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia: 274-280.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Anaxyrus fowleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54640A56844200. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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