Rhinella crucifer 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)
Bufo crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1821
Taxonomic Notes: Records of this species from Uruguay are in error. It has recently been shown to be a complex of more than one species, and R. abei, R. henseli, R. ornata, and R. pombali recognized (Baldissera et al., 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Lucy Aquino, Axel Kwet, Magno Vicente Segalla, Diego Baldo
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, at 0-900m asl. This species does not occur in Uruguay. Records from Misiones and northwestern Corrientes, Argentina, probably refer to B. ornatus. Records from eastern Paraguay remain unresolved, but are unlikely to refer to B. crucifer.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is abundant in some areas and uncommon in others.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in leaf-litter of the rainforest and also disturbed habitats. It reproduces in backwaters of rapidly flowing streams and temporary pools.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation for agricultural crops and timber extraction are threats facing this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Alvarez, B.B., Aguirre, R.H., Cespedez, J.A., Hernando, A.B. and Tedesco, M.E. 2002. Atlas de Anfibios y reptiles de Corrientes, Chaco y Formosa (Argentina). Editorial de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

Baldissera, F.A., Caramaschi, U. and Haddad, C.F.B. 2004. Review of the Bufo crucifer species group, with descriptions of two new related species (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Arquivos do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro): 255-282.

Braun, C.A.S. 1978. Levantamento dos anfibios venenosos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, Parte I. Familia Bufonidae. Iheringia Série Zoologia Porto Alegre: 73-83.

Braun, P.C. and Braun, C.A.S. 1980. Lista prévia dos anfíbios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia: 121-146.

Cabral-Eterovick, P. 2000. Effects of aggregation on feeding of Bufo crucifer tadpoles (Anura, Bufonidae). Copeia: 210-215.

Carrizo, G. 1991. Bufo crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1821 para la Provincia de Corrientes. Boletin de la Asociacion Herpetologica Argentina: 7.

Cei, J.M. 1980. Amphibians of Argentina. Monitore Zoologico Italiano N.S. Monografia.

Cochran, D.M. 1955. Frogs of southeastern Brazil. United States National Museum Bulletin: 1-423.

de Faria, M.J. 1978. Prevalencia de trematodeos parasitas de anfibios anuros no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro: 55-57.

de Lauro-Castrucci, A.M. 1980. Physiological aspects of pigment migration in 'in vitro' dermal melanophores of Bufo crucifer. 1. Effects of neurotransmitter agents. Boletim de Fisiologia Animal: 77-82.

de Oliveira, C., Sant'Anna, A.C., de Omena, P.M., Santos, L.R.S. and Zieri, R. 2003. Morphological considerations on the seminiferous structures and testes of anuran amphibians: Bufo crucifer, Physalaemus cuvieri and Scinax fuscovarius. Biociencias: 39-46.

de Oliveira-Rodrigues, H. 1986. Contribuicao ao estudo da fauna helmintologica de vertebrados de Nova Iguacu, RJ. Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro: 27-28.

de Oliveira-Rodrigues, H., Sodre-Rodrigues, S. and Cristofaro, R. 1978. Subsidios ao estudo dos trematodeos parasitos de anfibios de Barra do Pirai, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro: 25-29.

de Souza, F.L., Jr., Oliveira-de Souza, C.W. and Laterca-Martins, M. 1992. Gyrinicola chabaudi Araujo and Artigas, 1982 (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae). Description of male specimens collected from tadpoles. Revista Brasileira de Biologia: 585-588.

dos Santos, E.M., Botelho, M.C.N. and de Oliveira, J.B. 2002. Ectoparasitos de anfibios anuros (Anura, Bufonidae) capturados na Estacao Ecologica do Tapacura, Sao Lourenco da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil. Entomologia y Vectores: 105-113.

Duellman, W.E. and Schülte, R. 1992. Description of a new species of Bufo from northern Peru with comments on phenetic groups of South American toads (Anura: Bufonidae). Copeia 1992(1): 162-172.

Durette-Desset, M.C., Baker, M.R. and Vaucher, C. 1985. Helminths parasites du Paraguay 9. Remaniement et redefinition du genre Schulzia Travassos, 1937. Revue Suisse de Zoologie: 811-821.

Guix, J.C. and Lopes, R.M. 1989. Occurence of Hyla geographica Spix and Bufo crucifer Wied tadpoles in brackish water environment in the Juréia region (São Paulo, SE Brazil). Amphibia-Reptilia: 185-192.

Haddad, C.F.B. and Bastos, R.P. 1997. Predation on the toad Bufo crucifer during reproduction (Anura: Bufonidae). Amphibia-Reptilia: 295-298.

Haddad, C.F.B., Cardoso, A.J. and Castanho, L.M. 1990. Hibridação natural entre Bufo ictericus e Bufo crucifer (Amphibia: Anura). Revista Brasileira de Biologia: 739-744.

Heyer, W.R., Rand, A.S., Cruz, C.A.G., Peixoto, O.L. and Nelson, C.E. 1990. Frogs of Boracéia. Arquivos de Zoologia: 231-410.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

Kasahara, S., Silva, A.P.Z. and Haddad, C.F.B. 1996. Chromosome banding in three species of Brazilian toads (Amphibia-Bufonidae). Brazilian Journal of Genetics: 237-242.

Klappenbach, M.A. and Langone, J.A. 1992. Lista sistematica y sinonimica de los anfibios del Uruguay con comentarios y notas sobre su distribucion. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo: 163-222.

Kruse, K.C. and Stone, B.M. 1984. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) learn to avoid feeding on toad (Bufo) tadpoles. Animal Behaviour: 1035-1039.

Lutz, A. 1934. Notas sobre espécies brasileiras do gênero Bufo. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz: 111-133.

Morin, P.J. 1995. Functional redundancy, non-additive interactions, and supply-side dynamics in experimental pond communities. Ecology: 133-149.

Oseen, K.L. and Wassersug, R.J. 2002. Environmental factors influencing calling in sympatric anurans. Oecologia: 616-625.

Rodrigues, H.O. and Maldonado, A., Jr. 1982. Ocorrencia de Dero (Allodero) lutzi (Michaelsen, 1926) em Bufo crucifer Wied, 1821 no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Oligochaeta, Naididae). Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro: 13-15.

Rodrigues, H.O. and Rodrigues, S.S. 1982. Contribuicao ao conhecimento da fauna helmintologica de anfibios de Barra do Pirai, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro: 5-8.

Citation: Lucy Aquino, Axel Kwet, Magno Vicente Segalla, Diego Baldo. 2004. Rhinella crucifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54621A11176078. . Downloaded on 24 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided