Epidalea calamita 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Epidalea calamita
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English Natterjack Toad
Spanish Sapo Corredor
Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768
Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Pedro Beja, Sergius Kuzmin, Trevor Beebee, Mathieu Denoël, Benedikt Schmidt, David Tarkhnishvili, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Per Nyström, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Claude Miaud, Miguel Tejedo, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because the total population is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in southern, western and northern Europe, ranging from Portugal and Spain, north to Denmark, southern Sweden, and as far east as western Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia and Estonia. There are isolated populations in southwestern Ireland and scattered parts of the United Kingdom (north to southwestern Scotland). It occurs from sea level to almost 2,540 m asl (in Spain).
Countries occurrence:
Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2540
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is locally abundant across much of its range, especially in southern Europe. It is much more localized and is declining in the northern parts of its range (e.g., in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Estonia). While generally declining in Poland, a large breeding population of about 500 individuals was recorded in 2002 in the Slowinski National Park. It is considered generally rare in eastern parts of its range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is generally found in open and unshaded light sandy soils of coastal dunes, lowland heaths, semi-desert, high mountains, pine forest glades, gardens, parks, agricultural fields, sand and gravel quarries and meadows. In the daytime these animals hide in heaps of stones, in sandy soil and under debris. Spawning, followed by a short larval development period, takes place in sunny shallow temporary pools and lagoons. This is a pioneering species in much of southern Europe, sometimes temporarily colonizing new ponds; it is very much less adaptable in northern Europe.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are loss of specialized habitats (such as heaths and dunes) by natural encroachment of scrub and woodland; afforestation, acidification of breeding pools, agricultural development, infilling of breeding sites (such as temporary pools and sand and gravel quarries); increased mechanization of sand and gravel extraction and infrastructure development for tourism. In some parts of its range (e.g. in UK and Spain) chytridiomycosis is a threat. The species is considered vulnerable to climate change, particularly in southern Europe.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive, and is protected by national and sub national legislation throughout much of its range. The species is listed in many regional, national and sub-national Red Data Books and Lists, and is present in many protected areas. A re-introduction program in the UK has successfully established at least six, and perhaps quite a few more populations (Denton, et al. 1997; Zippel 2005).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.2. Problematic native species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.1. Acid rain
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

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Citation: Pedro Beja, Sergius Kuzmin, Trevor Beebee, Mathieu Denoël, Benedikt Schmidt, David Tarkhnishvili, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Per Nyström, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Claude Miaud, Miguel Tejedo, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano. 2009. Epidalea calamita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54598A11160828. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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