|Scientific Name:||Atelopus sorianoi|
|Species Authority:||La Marca, 1983|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ace; B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Enrique La Marca, Argelia Rodríguez, Juan Elías García-Pérez|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last ten years, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population (probably due to chytridiomycosis); and because its Area of Occupancy is less than 10 km2, all individuals are in a single location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals.
|Range Description:||This species is known from a single stream in an isolated cloud forest, the Paramito de San Francisco, near the town of Guaraque, in Mérida State, Cordillera de Mérida, in Venezuela. It has the most restricted geographic range of any Venezuelan Atelopus species, and lives at an altitude of 2,400-2,718m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||At the time of its discovery, this species was particularly abundant at the type locality. However, it is now extremely rare, or perhaps even extinct; the last record of the species was in 1990.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is an inhabitant of montane cloud forests. It is photophilic and lays egg chains in streams, where the tadpoles also develop.|
|Major Threat(s):||Infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in this species was reported by Lampo et al. (2006). Local climate data indicate that one of the most severe dry seasons recorded in the region since 1970 coincided with epidemic events. In addition, clear cutting has greatly reduced the amount of available habitat for this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The small range of this species does not include any protected areas. Surveys are needed to establish whether or not this species still survives, and a project aimed at evaluating their population status and at assessing environmental and climate conditions of the cloud forests of Mérida State in the Venezuelan Andes (where populations of this toad might occur in remote ridges and valleys) has been initiated. Ex-situ conservation action might also be required.|
Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America: 1-48.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
La Marca, E. 1983. A new frog of the genus Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) from a Venezuelan cloud forest. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology: 1-12.
La Marca, E. 1995. Crisis de biodiversidad en anfibios de Venezuela: estudio de casos. In: Alonso-Amelot, M.E. (ed.), La Biodiversidad Neotropical y la Amenaza de las Extinciones, pp. 47-69. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida.
La Marca, E. and Lötters, S. 1997. Monitoring of declines in Venezuelan Atelopus. In: Bohme,W., Bishoff, W. and Ziegler, T. (eds), Herpetologia Bonnensis, pp. 207-213. Society European Herpetology, Bonn.
La Marca, E. and Reinthaler, H.P. 1991. Population changes in Atelopus species of the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela. Herpetological Review: 125-128.
La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., Garcia-Perez, J.E., Toral, E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A. and Young, B. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica: 190-201.
Lampo, M., Rodríguez-Contreras, A., La Marca , E. and Daszak, P. 2006a. A chytridiomycosis epidemic and a severe dry season precede the disappearance of Atelopus species from the Venezuelan Andes. The Herpetological Journal 16: 395-402.
Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature: 161-167.
Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. 1995. Libro Rojo de la Fauna Venezolana. Provita, Fundación Polar, Caracas.
Vial, J.L. and Saylor, L. 1993. The status of amphibian populations. A compilation and analysis. IUCN/SSC Declining Amphibian Population Task Force. Working Document No. 1: iii + 98 pp.
|Citation:||Enrique La Marca, Argelia Rodríguez, Juan Elías García-Pérez 2010. Atelopus sorianoi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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