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Atelopus oxyrhynchus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Atelopus oxyrhynchus
Species Authority: Boulenger, 1903
Common Name(s):
English Rednose Stubfoot Toad
Spanish Sapito Arlequin De Merida

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2004-05-31
Assessor(s): Enrique La Marca, Irwin García, Rubén Albornoz, Juan Elías García-Pérez
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population, probably due to chytridiomycosis.
History:
2004 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a very restricted distribution, in cloud forests in the vicinities of the city of Mérida, in Mérida State, in the Cordillera de Mérida in the Venezuelan Andes. Its elevation ranges from 2,100-3,500 m asl.
Countries:
Possibly extinct:
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is now an extremely rare species, and although found in good numbers in 1978 and 1985, it was last recorded in 1994. Subsequent survey attempts to locate this species have failed to find any individuals, suggesting a serious population decrease.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is an inhabitant of montane cloud forests. It is photophillic and lays egg chains in streams, where the tadpoles also develop.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is likely to be chytridiomycosis, leading to a catastrophic population decline, as has occurred in many other montane species of Atelopus. Habitat loss and degradation is also a major threat, due to agriculture (crops, livestock, and plantations), logging (in the past), and mining. Climate data from 1975-1990 revealed years with dry spells, which appear to correlate with years where drastic population declines occurred in this species (García et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Some subpopulations occur within the Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada and Parque Nacional Sierra de la Culata. Surveys are needed to establish whether or not this species still persists in its natural range. In view of the threat of chytridiomycosis, surviving individuals might need to form the basis for the establishment of an ex-situ population.

Bibliography [top]

Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America: 1-48.

Boulenger, G.A. 1903. On some batrachians and reptiles from Venezuela. Annales and Magazine of Natural History, series 7: 481-484.

García, I.J., Albornoz, R., and La Marca, E. 2005. Perturbaciones climáticas y disminución de Atelopus oxyrhynchus (Amphibia: Anura) en los Andes de Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 2(2): 63-71.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

La Marca, E. 1992. Catálogo taxonómico, biogeográfico y bibliográfico de las ranas de Venezuela. Cuadernos Geográficos, Universidad de Los Andes: 1-197.

La Marca, E. 1995. Crisis de biodiversidad en anfibios de Venezuela: estudio de casos. In: Alonso-Amelot, M.E. (ed.), La Biodiversidad Neotropical y la Amenaza de las Extinciones, pp. 47-69. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida.

La Marca, E. and Lötters, S. 1997. Monitoring of declines in Venezuelan Atelopus. In: Bohme,W., Bishoff, W. and Ziegler, T. (eds), Herpetologia Bonnensis, pp. 207-213. Society European Herpetology, Bonn.

La Marca, E. and Reinthaler, H.P. 1991. Population changes in Atelopus species of the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela. Herpetological Review: 125-128.

La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., Garcia-Perez, J.E., Toral, E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A. and Young, B. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica: 190-201.

Lötters, S. 1996. The Neotropical Toad Genus Atelopus. Checklist - Biology - Distribution. Vences, M. and Glaw, F. Verlags GbR, Köln, Germany.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.

Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. 1995. Libro Rojo de la Fauna Venezolana. Provita, Fundación Polar, Caracas.


Citation: Enrique La Marca, Irwin García, Rubén Albornoz, Juan Elías García-Pérez 2010. Atelopus oxyrhynchus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 July 2014.
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