Atelopus arsyecue 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Atelopus arsyecue Rueda-Almonacid, 1994
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-01
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Amézquita, A., Rymel Acosta-Galvis, A., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Rueda-Solano, L., Ardila-Robayo, M., Ramírez Pinilla, M. & Osorno-Muñoz, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L., NatureServe
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 80 km2, it occurs in one threat-defined location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the type locality in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park in the department of Cesar, Colombia where its altitudinal range is between 2,000–3,500 m asl. It might occur a little more widely on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, but presently occurs in one threat-defined location and its EOO is 80 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):2000
Upper elevation limit (metres):3500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The 2004 assessment stated that the species was known from only six specimens and that there had not been any records since 1991. Since then the most recent record of the species is from a 2009 photograph taken by Ruperto Chaparro-Villafaña and verified by L.A. Rueda-Solano (Colombia Red Listing Workshop August 2016). There have been very few surveys to the area because it is difficult to access, so it is still unclear (as it was in 2004) whether the paucity of records is caused by the lack of survey effort, genuine rarity or population decline. Despite this uncertainty, due to the ongoing decline in the extent and quality in its habitat, the population of this species is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in sub-Andean and Andean forests, sub-páramo and páramo. Egg chains are placed in fast-flowing water and the tadpoles develop in the water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The present ongoing threats to this species are habitat loss and degradation from agricultural activities (including pollution from agrochemicals), fire, logging and livestock. Using models, Forero-Medina et al. (2011) suggest that climate change could lead to 20% of this species' range shifting to higher elevations with unsuitable land cover. The 2004 assessment reported that chytridiomycosis was probably the major threat, leading to a catastrophic population decline. While there is currently no direct information confirming that chytrid has caused declines in this species, the lack of records in the 1990s is consistent with the pattern of decline in many other montane Atelopus species and it is therefore reasonable to infer that the disease might be the cause of declines in this species (Colombia Red List Assessment Workshop August 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. 

Conservation Needed
To ensure its survival, improved and ongoing protection is required for the National Park and the suitable habitat outside the park. 

Research Needed
Further surveys are required to locate the species and improve the understanding of its population size, distribution and trend. Research is also needed to better determine the impact of past, present and future threats.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 1(3): 289-319.

Forero-Medina, G., Joppa, L. and Pimm, S.L. 2011. Constraints to Species’ Elevational Range Shifts as Climate Changes. Conservation Biology 25(1): 163-171.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., Garcia-Perez, J.E., Toral, E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A. and Young, B. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37(2): 190-201.

Lötters, S. 1996. The Neotropical Toad Genus Atelopus. Checklist - Biology - Distribution. Vences, M. and Glaw, F. Verlags GbR, Köln, Germany.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.

Rueda-Almonacid, J.V. 1994. Una nueva especie de Atelopus A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron 1841 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) para la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Trianea (Acta Científica y Tecnológica INDERENA) 5: 101-108.

Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. and Lynch, J.D. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20(77): 365-415.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Atelopus arsyecue. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54489A49534521. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
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